IMPROVING THE FUNCTION OF CRISPR-CAS9 FOR GENOME EDITING THERAPY: EDITING THE EDITOR

Alva Sahiri Alexander Supit

Abstract


Meningkatkan Fungsi CRISPR-Cas9 untuk Terapi Pengeditan Gen

Pengeditan gen menjadi mudah dilakukan sejak ditemukannya clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) dan CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) sebagai alat untuk menyunting gen suatu organisme. Sebagian besar penyakit genetik tidak dapat disembuhkan secara kausal dengan terapi yang ada, maka pengeditan gen merupakan suatu cara yang prospektif dalam terapi medis di masa depan. Sayangnya, pengeditan gen dengan Cas9 yang ada saat ini masih memiliki banyak kelemahan, yaitu: 1) kurang spesifik, di mana RNA pemandu dapat berikatan dengan beberapa segmen pada genom manusia, sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya salah target; 2) kurang efisien, karena sekalipun telah berhasil memotong utas ganda DNA, kebanyakan penyambungan kembali akan dilakukan secara non-homology end joining (NHEJ), yang justru meningkatkan peluang terjadinya mutasi; 3) sulit disalurkan ke dalam inti sel karena berbagai sawar fisiologis maupun biokimiawi. Tulisan ini akan membahas perkembangan terkini dalam mengatasi ketiga masalah di atas. Untuk meningkatkan spesifisitas, dapat dilakukan modifikasi RNA pemandu dan struktur Cas9. Efisiensi dapat ditingkatkan dengan meningkatkan peluang terjadinya homology-directed repair dibandingkan NHEJ, sedangkan untuk meningkatkan distribusi ke dalam sel, dapat digunakan berbagai macam vektor, seperti virus dan nanopartikel. CRISPR-Cas9 merupakan area yang aktif diteliti dalam bidang biosains, dan dalam waktu dekat, diharapkan dapat dimanfaatkan dalam bidang klinik.

Kata kunci: CRISPR, Cas9, efektivitas, spesifisitas, terapi gen


ABSTRACT

Gene editing has become reasonably easy since the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). Most genetic diseases cannot be treated causally, and currently available therapies are mainly symptom-based. To treat the etiology of genetic diseases, a firm gene editing therapy is necessary to be established. This posits Cas9-facilitated gene editing as a prospective modality to become a clinically approved therapy in the future to treat genetic disorders. However, until recently, Cas9-based genome editing is still facing several hurdles, including low specificity, low effectiveness, and difficult delivery. Currently available Cas9 nucleases are able to bind to non-specific DNA sequence and produce non-specific cleavage. The efficiency has been relatively low due to the preference of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) over homology-directed repair (HDR) by the host cell. Furthermore, in order to deliver Cas9 into the nucleus, multiple physiological barriers have to be overcome. This review discussed recent developments in tackling these three hurdles, ranging from designing the guide RNA using multiple bioinformatics tools, modifying Cas9 structure, as well as packaging the nuclease-guide RNA complex into viral vectors and nanoparticles. Considering the active research on this area, it is expected that CRISPR/Cas9 can be utilized as a clinical therapy in the near future.

Received: 02 June 2017        Accepted: 07 July 2017        Published: 19 July 2017


Keywords


CRISPR; Cas9; effectiveness; specificity; gene therapy

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References


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