Yesi Leiskayanti, Catur Sriherwanto, Imam Suja'i


Fermentation Using Tempe Starter as A Biological Method for Providing Buoyancy to Fish Feed


Rhizopus sp. is known as the fungus in the making of the soybean tempeh, Rhizopus sp. fermentation brought about chemical as well as physical changes on the substrate including the buoyancy and water stability. These features may be used to biologically prepare floating aquafeed. In this study, tempeh starter was used as the biological agent in the fermentation of commercial sinking fish feed in which fermentation period was varied at 0, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 hours. The resulting fermented feeds were oven-dried and their physical qualities were measured and compared to the commercial floating fish feed (positive control). Results showed that the fermented feed gained better water stability, absorption capacity, and floatability compared to those of the commercial sinking feed. These values were however still lower than those of the commercial floating feeds. Thus, fermentation process using tempeh mould has potential to be further improved as a biological method of producing floating fish feed.


Keywords: fermentation, floatability, Rhizopus sp., water absorption,  water stability



Rhizopus sp. dikenal sebagai jamur yang digunakan dalam pembuatan tempe kedelai. Fermentasi Rhizopus sp. menyebabkan perubahan kimia dan fisika pada substrat, termasuk daya apung dan stabilitas dalam air. Sifat ini bisa dimanfaatkan untuk membuat pakan ikan apung secara biologis. Dalam penelitian ini, ragi tempe digunakan sebagai agen hayati dalam fermentasi pakan ikan tenggelam komersial dimana periode fermentasi divariasi selama 0, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, dan 34 jam. Pakan fermentasi yang dihasilkan dikeringkan dengan oven, selanjutnya kualitas fisiknya diukur dan dibandingkan dengan pakan ikan apung komersial (kontrol positif). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pakan fermentasi memiliki stabilitas dalam air, daya serap air, dan daya apung yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pakan tenggelam komersial. Namun nilai ini masih lebih rendah dibandingkan pakan apung komersial. Oleh karenanya, proses fermentasi menggunakan ragi tempe memiliki potensi untuk diperbaiki lebih lanjut sebagai metode biologis pembuatan pakan ikan apung.


Received: 11 October 2017                 Accepted: 07 November 2017              Published: 04 December 2017

Kata Kunci: daya apung, daya serap air, fermentasi, Rhizopus sp., stabilitas dalam air


fermentation; floatability; Rhizopus sp.; water absorption; water stability

Full Text:



Abro R, Moazzami AA, Lindberg JE, Lundh T (2014a) Metabolic insights in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed with zygomycetes and fish meal diets as assessed in liver using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Int Aquat Res 6:63

Abro R, Sundell K, Sandblom E, Sundh H, Brännäs E, Kiessling A, Lindberg JE, Lundh T (2014b) Evaluation of chitinolytic activities and membrane integrity in gut tissues of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed fish meal and zygomycete biomass. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B Biochem Mol Biol 175:1–8. doi:10.1016/j.cbpb.2014.06.003

Ariffin R, Apostolopoulos C, Graffham A, MacDougall D, Owens JD (1994) Assessment of hyphal binding in tempe. Lett Appl Microbiol 18:32-34

Christen P, Bramorski A, Revah S, Soccol CR (2000) Characterization of volatile compounds produced by Rhizopus strains grown on agro-industrial solid wastes. Bioresour Technol 71:211–215. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00084-X

Chukeatirote E, Eungwanichayapant PD, Kanghae A (2017) Determination of volatile components in fermented soybean prepared by a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus. Food Res 1:225–233

Eklund-Jonsson C, Sandberg AS, Alminger ML (2006) Reduction of phytate content while preserving minerals during whole grain cereal tempe fermentation. J Cereal Scie 44:154-160

Erizal E, Lana M, Setyo R, Abbas B (2016) Sintesis dan karakterisasi hidrogel superabsorben berbasis asam akrilat hasil iradiasi gamma. J Ilm Apl Isot dan Radiasi 11:27–38

FAO (2017) Table 9. Type of formulated feed used for tilapia culture with advantage and disadvantage and the type of processing. In: Aquac. Feed Fertil. Resour. Inf. Syst. http://www.fao.org /fileadmin/user_upload/affris/img/Niletilapia_table/Nile_tilapia_table_9_01.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2017

FazeliNejad S, Ferreira JA, Brandberg T, Lennartsson PR, Taherzadeh MJ (2016) Fungal protein and ethanol from lignocelluloses using Rhizopus pellets under simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF). Biofuel Res J 3:372–378. doi: 10.18331/BRJ2016.3.1.7

Feng XM, Passoth V, Eklund-Jonsson C, Alminger ML, Schnürer J (2007) Rhizopus oligosporus and yeast co-cultivation during barley tempeh fermentation—nutritional impact and real-time PCR quantification of fungal growth dynamics. Food Microbiol  24:393-402

Ferreira JA, Lennartsson PR, Edebo L, Taherzadeh MJ (2013) Zygomycetes-based biorefinery: Present status and future prospects. Bioresour Technol 135: 523–532. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012. 09.064

Handoyo T, Morita N (2006) Structural and functional properties of fermented soybean (Tempeh) by using Rhizopus oligosporus. Int J Food Prop 9:347–355

Kurniati T, Nurlaila L, Iim (2017) Effect of inoculum dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with fermentation time of oil seed cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of protein and crude fiber. J Phys Conf Ser 824:12064

Langeland M, Vidakovic A, Vielma J, Lindberg JE, Kiessling A, Lundh T (2016) Digestibility of microbial and mussel meal for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Aquac Nutr 22:485–495. doi: 10.1111/anu.12268

Manurukchinakorn S, Fujio Y (1997) Effect of enzymes on the degree of maceration of soybean fermented by Rhizopus strains. J Fac Agric Kyushu Univ 41:231-237

Misra CK, Sahu NP, Jain KK (2002) Effect of extrusion processing and steam pelleting diets on pellet durability, water absorption and physical response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. ASIAN Australas J Anim Sci 15:1354–1358

Niveditha VR, Sridhar KR (2014) Antioxidant activity of raw, cooked and Rhizopus oligosporus fermented beans of Canavalia of coastal sand dunes of Southwest India. J Food Sci Technol 51:3253–3260. doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0830-9

Nurlaila (2016) Hasil uji pakan ikan PT. Balqis Sejahtera. Laboratorium Penguji, Balai Bioteknologi, BPPT. Sertifikat hasil uji no. 142-SHU-07-2016, 13 Juli 2016

Olanipekun BF, Otunola ET, Adelakun OE, Oyelade OJ (2009) Effect of fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on some physico-chemical properties of starch extracts from soybean flour. Food Chem Toxicol 47:1401-1405

Paolucci M, Fabbrocini A, Volpe MG, Varricchio E, Coccia E (2012) Development of biopolymers as binders for feed for farmed aquatic organisms. In: Muchlisin Z (ed) Aquaculture,  InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp 3-34. http://cdn.intechweb.org/pdfs/ 27101.pdf. Accessed 10 October 2017.

Paredes-López O, González-Castañeda J, Cárabez-Trejo A (1991) Influence of solid substrate fermentation on the chemical composition of chickpea. J Ferment Bioeng 71:58–62. doi: 10.1016/0922-338X(91)90304-Y

Pradana Y, Sriherwanto C, Yunita E, Suja’i I (2017) Growth of nile tilapia (Oreochormis niloticus) fry fed with coconut testa-cassava bagasse mixed substrate fermented by Rhizopus oryzae. J Bioteknol Biosains Indones 4:1–11

Priatni S, Devi AF, Kardono LBS, Jayasena V (2013) Evaluasi sensorik dan kualitas tempe dari kacang lupin berbagai ukuran partikel. J Teknol dan Ind Pangan 24:209

Sandhu KS, Punia S (2017) Enhancement of bioactive compounds in barley cultivars by solid substrate fermentation. J Food Meas Charact 1–7. doi:10.1007/s11694-017-9513-6

Satari B, Karimi K, Taherzadeh MJ, Zamani A (2016) Co-Production of fungal biomass derived constituents and ethanol from citrus wastes free sugars without auxiliary nutrients in airlift bioreactor. Int J Mol Sci 17:302

Somerville C, Cohen M, Pantanella E, Stankus A, Lovatelli A (2014) Fish in aquaponics. In: Small-scale aquaponic food production: integrated fish and plant farming, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 589. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 103–121

Sorensen M (2015) Nutritional and Physical Quality of Aqua Feeds. In: 4. International Conference “Fishery” Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia, May, 27-29. 2009. Belgrade-Zemun, pp 105–110

Souza Filho PF, Zamani A, Taherzadeh MJ (2017) Production of edible fungi from potato protein liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor. Fermentation 3:1–12. doi:10.3390/fermentation3010012

Starzyńska-Janiszewska A, Stodolak B, Wikiera A (2015) Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 14:125–132

Umam RD, Sriherwanto C, Yunita E, Suja’i I (2015) growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed with rice bran-coconut bagasse mixed substrate fermented using Rhizopus oryzae. J Bioteknol Biosains Indones 2:81–87

Valdez-González F, Gutiérrez-Dorado R, Hernández-Llamas A, García-Ulloa M, Sánchez-Magaña L, Cuevas-Rodríguez B, Rodríguez-González H
(2017) Bioprocessing of common beans in diets for tilapia. In vivo digestibility and antinutritional factors. J Sci Food Agric 97:4087–4093. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8275

Varzakas T (1998) Rhizopus oligosporus mycelial penetration and enzyme diffusion in soya bean tempe. Process Biochem 33:741-747

Vidakovic A, Langeland M, Sundh H, Sundell K, Olstorpe M, Vielma J, Kiessling A, Lundh T (2016) Evaluation of growth performance and intestinal barrier function in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fungi (Rhizopus oryzae) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Aquac Nutr 22:1348–1360. doi: 10.1111/anu.12344

Wronkowska M, Christa K, Ciska E, Soral-Śmietana M (2015) Chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of raw and roasted buckwheat groats fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus. J Food Qual 38:130–138. doi: 10.1111/jfq.12127


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v4i2.2503

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v4i2.2503.g2127


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© Copyright: BY-NC-SA