MANURE UNGGAS: SUPLEMEN PAKAN ALTERNATIF DAN DAMPAK TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN

Yanuartono Yanuartono, Alfarisa Nururrozi, Soedarmanto Indarjulianto, Nurman Haribowo, Hary Purnamaningsih, Slamet Raharjo

Abstract


Manure Poultry: Alternative Feed Supplements and Impacts on the Environment


ABSTRACT

The increase in protein demand is now of serious concern as the human population is forecasted to rise to as much as 9.6 billion by 2050. The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. Increased production results in increased sewage so that the impact on the emergence of environmental problems associated with increased air pollution, water, and soil. The sustainability of animal feeds is crucial in the development of livestock production systems, and feed efficiency can be improved by reusing poultry waste in livestock diets, thus diminishing the use of feed grains. There are several ways of disposing of poultry waste including burial, incineration, composting, fertilizer or source of biogas energy and feed for livestock. Poultry manure is a rich source of lignocelluloses, polysaccharides, proteins, minerals, and other biological materials. It is currently expected some problems can be overcome by utilizing poultry manure waste as an alternative feed source for livestock. This paper aims to review the negative effects of excessive chicken manure and its benefits as an alternative feed for livestock and fish.

Keywords: alternative feed, livestock, pollution, poultry industry, poultry manure

 

ABSTRAK

Kenaikan permintaan protein menjadi perhatian serius karena populasi manusia diperkirakan akan meningkat menjadi sebanyak 9,6 miliar orang pada tahun 2050. Industri perunggasan merupakan salah satu sektor produksi ternak terbesar dan tercepat di dunia. Meningkatnya hasil produksi tersebut akan menambah jumlah limbah sehingga berdampak pada munculnya masalah lingkungan yang terkait dengan peningkatan polusi udara, air dan tanah. Ketersediaan pakan hewan secara berkesinambungan sangat penting dalam pengembangan sistem produksi ternak dan efisiensi pakan dapat ditingkatkan dengan menggunakan kembali limbah unggas sebagai bahan pakan ternak, sehingga mengurangi penggunaan biji-bijian sebagai sumber pakan. Ada beberapa metode mengurangi jumlah manure ayam termasuk penguburan, insinerasi, pengomposan, pemupukan atau sumber energi biogas dan pakan ternak. Kotoran unggas adalah sumber lignoselulosa, polisakarida, protein, mineral dan bahan biologi lainnya. Saat ini diperkirakan beberapa permasalahan bisa diatasi dengan memanfaatkan limbah manure unggas sebagai sumber pakan alternatif bagi ternak. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dampak negatif dari manure ayam yang berlebihan dan manfaatnya sebagai pakan alternatif untuk ternak dan ikan.

Kata Kunci: industri perunggasan, manure ayam, pakan alternatif, polusi, ternak


Keywords


poultry industry; pollution; poultry manure; alternative feed

Full Text:

PDF

References


 Abbas S, Ahmed I, Akhtar P (2004) Effect of different levels of poultry droppings on the growth performance of major carps. Pak Vet J 24:139-143

Abd-Rahman AR,  Cob ZC, Jamari Z, Mohamed AM, Toda T, Ross OH (2018) The effects of microalgae as live food for Brachionus plicatilis (rotifer) in intensive culture system. Trop Life Sci Res 29:127-138. doi: 10.21315/tlsr2018.29.1.9

Adelowo OO, Fagade OE, Agers Y (2014) Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:1103-1112. doi:10.3855/jidc.4222

Adeoye PA, Hasfalina CM, Amin MSM, Thamer AM, Akinbile CO (2014) Environmental implication of poultry waste generation and management techniques in Minna, semi-arid region of Nigeria. Ann Res Rev Biol 4:1669-1681

Adesehinwa AOK, Obi OO, Makanjuola BA, Adebayo AO, Durotoye ES (2010) Utilization of sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter as a feed resource for growing-finishing pigs. Afr J Biotechnol 9:2821-2825. doi: 10.5897/AJB09.1821 

Adewumi AA, Adewumi IK, Olaleye VF (2011) Livestock waste-menace: Fish wealth-solution. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 5:149-154

Agbede TM, Ojeniyi SO, Adeyemo AJ (2008). Effect of poultry manure on soil physical and chemical properties, growth and grain yield of sorghum in Southwest, Nigeria. American-Eurasian J Sus Agric 2: 72-77

Akinfala EO, Komolafe OB (2011) Evaluation of different processing methods on the nutrient composition of broiler litter and its utilization by weaner pigs in the tropics. Livestock Res Rural Dev 23:1-4

Al Mamun S, Nusrat F, Debi MR (2011) Integrated farming system: Prospects in Bangladesh. J Environ Sci & Natural Resources 4:127-136. doi: 10.3329/jesnr.v4i2.10161

Amanullah MM, Sekar S, Muthukrishnan P (2010) Prospects and potential of poultry manure. Asian J Plant Sci 9:172-182. doi: 10.3923/ajps.2010.172.182 

Anupoju GR, Ahuja S, Gandu B, Sandhya K, Kuruti K,  Yerramsetti VS (2015) Biogas from poultry litter: A review on recent technological advancements. Pp 133-147. In: Ravindra P (Ed). Advances in Bioprocess Technology. Springer, New York. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17915-5_8

Arave CW, Dobson DC, Arambel MJ, Purcell D, Walters JL (1990) Effect of poultry waste feeding on intake body weight and milk yield of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 73:129-134. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78655-9

Atidégla SC, Huat J, Agbossou EK, Saint-Macary H, Kakai RG (2016) Vegetable contamination by the fecal bacteria of poultry manure: Case study of gardening sites in Southern Benin. Int J Food Sci 2016:1-8 doi: 10.1155/2016/4767453

Avcioglu AO, Colak A, Turker U (2013). Turkey's chicken waste biogas potential. J Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty 10:21-28. ISSN:1302-7050

Aye PA (2013) Nutrient digestibility and haematological indices of West African dwarf goats fed Cnidosculus aconitifolius multinutrient blocks as supplement. Agric Biol J N Am 4: 375-383. doi: 10.5251/abjna.2013.4.4.375.383

Aye PA, Adegun MK (2010) Digestibility and growth in West African dwarf sheep fed gliricidia-based multinutrient block supplements. Agric Biol J N Am 1:1133-1139. doi: 10.5251/abjna.2010.1.6.1133.1139

Azarmi R, Giglou MT, Hajieghrari B (2009) The effect of sheep-manure vermicompost on quantitative and qualitative properties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in the greenhouse. Afr J Biotechnol 8: 4953-4957. doi: 10.4314/ajb.v8i19.65198

Azizi A, Sharifi A, Azarfar A, Kiani A, Jolazadeh A (2017) Performance and ruminal parameters of fattening Moghani lambs fed recycled poultry bedding. Anim Nutr 3:145-150. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2017.02.004

Bassil RJ, Bashour II, Sleiman FT, Abou-Jawdeh YA (2013) Antibiotic uptake by plants from manure-amended soils. J Environ Sci Health B. 48:570-574. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2013.774898

Bernhart M, Fasina OO (2009) Moisture effect on the storage, handling and flow properties of poultry litter. Waste Manag 29:1392-1398. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.09.005

Carballo M, Aguayo S, González M, Esperon F, de la Torre A (2016) Environmental assessment of tetracycline’s residues detected in pig slurry and poultry manure. J Environ Protection 7:82-92. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.71008

Cimò G, Kucerik J, Berns AE, Schaumann GE, Alonzo G, Conte P (2014) Effect of heating time and temperature on the chemical characteristics of biochar from poultry manure. J Agric Food Chem 62:1912-1918. doi: 10.1021/jf405549z  

Cookey TI, Otokunefor K (2016) Poultry environment as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria – A Nigerian story. Br Microbiol Res J 17:1-11. doi: 10.9734/BMRJ/2016/28601

Darmawansyah S, John AH, Yeanny MS (2013) Laju pertumbuhan populasi Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Muller dengan pemberian kotoran ayam kampung (Gallus varius L.) dan ayam broiler (Gallus demostica L.) pada media kombinasi pupuk urea dan TSP. Saintia Biologi 1:13-18

Du L, Liu W (2012) Occurrence, fate, and ecotoxicity of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 32: 309-327. doi: 10.1007/s13593-011-0062-9

Elsaidy N, Abouelenien FA, Kirrella GAK (2015) Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish. Egyptian J Aquatic Res 41:93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ejar.2015.01.002

Endebu M, Tugie D, Negisho T (2016) Fish growth performance in ponds integrated with poultry farm and fertilized with goat manure: A case in Ethiopian Rift Valley. Int J Fishery Sci Aquac 3:040-045

FDA (2012) Guidance for industry: the judicious use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals. Center for Veterinary Medicine, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration 2012:209

Febrita E, Darmadi, Siswanto E (2015) Pertumbuhan cacing tanah (Lumbricus rubellus) dengan pemberian pakan buatan untuk mendukung proses pembelajaran pada konsep pertumbuhan dan perkembangan invertebrata. J Biogenesis 11:169-176

Ghaly AE, MacDonald KN (2012) Drying of poultry manure for use as animal feed. Am J Agric Biol Sci 7:239-254. doi: 10.3844/Ajabssp.2012.239.254

Glatz P, Miao Z, Rodda B (2011) Handling and treatment of poultry hatchery waste: A review. Sustainability 3:216-237. doi: 10.3390/su3010216

Hadjipanayiotou M, Labban LM, Kronfoleh AE, Verhaeghe L, Naigm T, Al-Wadi M,  Amin M (1993) Studies on the use of dried poultry manure in ruminant diets in Syria. Livest Res Rural Dev 5:1-3

Han X, Rusconi N, Ali P, Pagkatipunan K,   Chen F (2017) Nutrients extracted from chicken manure accelerate growth of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus HTB1. Green and Sustainable Chemistry 7:101-113. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2017.72009

Helda, Sabuna C (2012) Fermentasi kotoran kambing dan ayam dengan nira lontar sebagai pakan ayam.  Partner 19:112-120

Hirpo LA (2017) Evaluation of integrated poultry-fish-horticulture production in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. Int J Fish Aquat 5:562-565

Ho YB, Zakaria MP, Latif PA, Saari N (2014) Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia. Sci Total Environ 488-489:261-267. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.109

Hoa PTP, Managaki S, Nakada N, Takada H, Shimizu A, Anh DH, Viet PH,  Suzuki S (2011) Antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria aquatic environments of northern Vietnam. Sci Total Environ 409:2894-2901. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.030

Hou J, Wan W, Mao D, Wang C, Mu Q, Qin S, Luo Y (2015) Occurrence and distribution of sulphonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China. Environ Sci Pollution Res Int 22:4545-4554. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3632-y

Huang J, Yu Z, Gao H, Yan X, Chang J, Wang C, Hu J, Zhang L (2017) Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices. PLoS ONE 12:e0178110. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178110

Ilaiayadeepan K, Durairaj K, Saravanan K (2015) A comparative nutrient analysis of vermicompost and goat manure based on the growth of plant green gram (Vigna Radiate) Int J Modn Res Revs 3:728-730

Iwai CB, Ta-oun M, Seripong S, Champar-ngam N (2011) Vermicomposting: good management practice for waste, soil and yield safety. Department of Plant Sciences and Agricultural Resources, Land Resources and Environment Section, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Iyappan P, Karthikeyan S,  Sekar S (2011)  Changes in the composition of poultry farm excreta (PFE) by the cumulative influence of the age of birds, feed and climatic conditions and a simple mean for minimizing the environmental hazard. Int J Environ Sci 1:847-859

Jamila, Tangdilintin FK, Astuti R (2009) Kandungan protein kasar dan serat kasar pada feses ayam yang difermentasi dengan Lactobacillus Sp.  Pp 557-560. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. 13-14 Agustus 2009. Puslitbang Peternakan, Bogor

Jamir T, Rajwade VB, Prasad VM, Lyngdoh C (2017) Effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) hybrid Indam Bharath in shade net condition. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:1010-1019 doi: 10.20546/ijcmas.2017.608.125

Jayalakshmi K, Paramasivam M, Sasikala M, Tamilam TV, Sumithra A (2017) Review on antibiotic residues in animal products and its impact on environments and human health. J Entomol Zool Stud 5: 1446-1451

Jha P, Barat S, Nayak CR (2008) Fish production, water quality and bacteriological parameters of Koi carp ponds under live-food and manure based management regimes. Zool Res 29:165-173

Kader MA, Koshio S, Ishikawa M, Yokoyama S, Bulbul M, Nguyen BT, Gao J, Laining A (2012) Can fermented soybean meal and squid by-product blend be used as fishmeal replacements for Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)?. Aquacult Res 43:1427-1438. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.02945.x

Kaplan O, Yildirim NC, Yildirim N, Cimen M (2011) Toxic elements in animal products and environmental health. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 6:228-232. doi: 10.3923/ajava.2011.228.232 

Kaur S, Masud S, Khan A (2015) Effect of fertilization and organic manure on water quality dynamics a proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. J Fisheries Livest Prod 3:133. doi:10.4172/2332-2608.1000133

Kebede G, Zenebe T, Disassa H, Tolosa T (2014) Review on detection of antimicrobial residues in raw bulk milk in dairy farms. Afr J Basic Appl Sci 6:87-97. doi: 10.5829/idosi.ajbas.2014.6.4.8642

Kolawole GO (2016) Nutrient release patterns of Tithonia compost and poultry manure in three dominant soils in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. Int J Plant Soil Sci 10:1-8. doi: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/25828

Kopec M, Gondek K, Mierzwa-Hersztek M, Antonkiewicz J (2018) Factors influencing chemical quality of composted poultry waste. Saudi J Biol Sci 25:1678-1686 doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.09.012

Kostadinova G, Petkov G, Denev S, Miteva Ch, Stefanova R, Penev T (2014) Microbial pollution of manure, litter, air and soil in a poultry farm. Bulg J Agric Sci 20:56-65

Kour S, Masud S, Khan A (2016) Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. J Environ Biol 37:149-153. PMID:26930873

Kováčik P, Kmeťová M,  Renčo M (2013) The impact of fresh sawdust and dry pig manure produced on sawdust bedding application on the nutrients mobility in soil and sugar beet yield. J Ecol Eng 14:69-76. doi: 10.5604/2081139X.1056049

Kusumorini A, Cahyanto T, Utami LD (2017) Pengaruh pemberian fermentasi kotoran ayam terhadap populasi dan biomassa cacing (Tubifex tubifex). J Istek 10:16-36

Leip A, Billen G, Garnier J, Grizzetti B, Lassaletta L, Reis S, Simpson D, Sutton MA, de Vries W, Weiss F Westhoek H (2015) Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity. Environ Res Lett 10:1-13. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/11/115004

Len NT, Linh LM, Ogle B (2003) Ensiling and preserving chicken manure as animal feed and its evaluation in diets of F1 fattening pigs under village conditions. In: Proceedings of Final National Seminar: Workshop on Sustainable Livestock Production on Local Feed Resources. Preston R, Ogle B (Ed). 25-28 March, 2003. HUAF-SAREC, Hue City, Vietnam

Liljebjelke KA, Hofacre CL, White DG, Ayers S, Lee MD, Maurer JJ (2017) Diversity of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in Salmonella isolated from commercial poultry farms. Front Vet Sci 4:96. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00096

Lopez-Mosquera ME, Cabalerio F, Sainz MJ, Lopes-Fabal A, Carral E (2008) Fertilizing value of broiler litter: effects of drying and pelletizing. Bioresource Technol 99:5626-5633. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.10.034

Manaig-Elena M (2016) Vermicomposting efficiency and quality of vermicompost with different bedding materials and worm food sources as substrate. Res J Agriculture and Forestry Sci 4:1-13

Mekonnen MM, Hoekstra AY (2012) A global assessment of the water footprint of farm animal products. Ecosystems 15:401-415. doi: 10.1007/s10021-011-9517-8

Mlejnkova H, Sovova K (2012) Impact of fish pond manuring on microbial water quality. Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendel Brun 60:117-124. doi: 10.11118/actaun201260030117

Moreki JC, Keaikitse T (2013) Poultry waste management practices in selected poultry operations around Gaborone, Botswana. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2:240-248

Musa B, Abdullahi MS (2013) The toxicological effects of cadmium and some other heavy metals in plants and human. J Environ Sci Water Resource 2:245-249

Natalia D, Suprijatna E, Muryani R (2016) Pengaruh penggunaan limbah industri jamu dan bakteri asam laktat (Lactobacillus sp.) sebagai sinbiotik untuk aditif pakan terhadap performans ayam petelur periode layer. J Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 26:6-13. doi: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2016.026.03.02

Neela FA, Banu NA, Rahman A, Rahman MH, Alam MF (2015) Occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in pond water associated with integrated poultry-fish farming in Bangladesh. Sains Malaysiana 44:371-377. doi: 10.17576/jsm-2015-4403-08

Neela FA, Rahman MA, Banu MNA, Rahman MH, Ohta Hl, Alam MF (2012) Occurrence of two antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment associated with shrimp farming in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Bot 41:197-200

Nurfitriani L, Suminto, Hutabarat J (2014)  Pengaruh penambahan kotoran ayam, ampas tahu dan silase ikan Rucah dalam media kultur terhadap biomassa, populasi dan kandungan nutrisi cacing sutera (Tubifex sp.) J Aquaculture Management and Technology 3:109-117

Nururrozi A, Yanuartono, Sutrisno B. 2017. Feed additive berbasis fermentasi  manur digestat kotoran ayam menggunakan Lactobacillus casei  untuk meningkatkan produktivitas ayam kampung. Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Iptek bagi Masyarakat (IbM) Direktorat Riset dan Pengabdian Masyarakat Direktorat Jenderal Penguatan Riset dan Pengembangan Kementerian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi. Program Pengabdian Masyarakat Nomor: 001/SP2H/PPM/DRPM/IV/2017

Obasa SO, Alegbeleye WO, Amole JB (2009) Dried poultry manure meal as a substitute for soybean meal in the diets of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell 1822) advanced fry.  Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 9:121-124

Obeidat BS, Awawdeh MS, Abdullah AY, Muwulla MM, Abu Ishmais MA, Telfah BT, Ayrout AJ, Matarneh SK, Subih  HS, Osaili TO (2011) Effects of feeding broiler litter on performance of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 165:15-22. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.02.007

Okeke OR, Ujah II, Okoye PAC, Ajiwe VIE, Eze CP (2015) Assessment of the heavy metal levels in feeds and litters of chickens rose with in Awka Metropolis and its environs. IOSR J Appl Chem 8:60-63. doi: 10.9790/5736-08126063

Okeudo NJ, Adegbola AA (1993) Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production. Tropical Animal Health and Production 25:234-238. doi: 10.1007/BF02250877

Okoli P, Nweke IA (2015)   Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and quality of cucumber fruits. J Exp Biol Agric Sci 3:362-367. doi: 10.18006/2015.3(4).362.367

Oluyege JO, Oluwaniyi TT, Ijasan OC (2015) Composition of antibiotic resistant bacteria from irrigated vegetable farmland. J Microbiol Res 5:161-168 doi: 10.5923/j.microbiology.20150505.04

Oyedeji S, Animasaun DA, Bello AA, Agboola OO (2014) Effect of NPK and poultry manure on growth, yield, and proximate composition of three amaranths. J Bot 2014:ID 828750. doi: 10.1155/2014/828750

Ozores-Hampton M (2012) Developing a vegetable fertility program using organic amendments and inorganic fertilizers.  HortTechnology 22:743-750

Pamungkas GS, Sutarno, Mahajoeno E (2012) Fermentasi lumpur digestat kotoran ayam petelur dengan kapang Aspergillus niger untuk sumber protein pada ransum ayam. Bioteknologi 9:26-34. doi: 10.13057/biotek/c090105

Paxton H (2010) The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations. J Anat 217:153-166. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01251.x

Perez-Aleman S, Dempster DG, English PR, Topps JH (1971) A note on dried poultry manure in the diet of the growing pig. Anim Sci 13:361-364. doi: 10.1017/S0003356100029834

Petmuenwai N, Iwai CB, Chuasavathi T, Ta-Oun M (2013) Using chicken manure in vermicompost to manage different agro-industrial wastes. Int J Environ Rural Dev 4:69-74

Pinto-Ruiz R, Alfonso-Ruiz E, Gomez-Castro H, Guevara-Hernandes F, Ruiz-Sesma B,  Jimenez-Trujillo JA (2012) Quality of chicken manure as cattle feed and its effect on composition of cow’s milk and blood serum in a dry tropical pastoral system. J Anim Vet Adv 11:289-294. doi: 10.3923/javaa.2012.289.294

Prabowo JA, Irdaf, Azizah S (2016) Efektivitas pemberdayaan peternak broiler melalui pola kemitraan inti plasma oleh PT. Jaguar Farm di Kabupaten Malang.  J Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 26:49-59. doi: 10.21776/ub.jiip.2016.026.02.7

Priyadarshini M, Manissery JK, Gangadhara B, Keshavanath P (2011) Influence of feed, manure and their combination on the growth of Cyprinus carpio (L.) fry and fingerlings. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 11:577-586. doi: 10.4194/1303-2712-v11_4_11

Putri DS, Supriyono E,  Djokosetiyanto D  (2014) Pemanfaatan kotoran ayam fermentasi dan limbah budidaya lele  pada budidaya cacing sutra dengan sistem resirkulasi.  J Akuakultur Indones 13:132-139

Rameshwar HY, Argaw A (2016) Manurial value of khat waste vermicompost from Awday, Harar town, Ethiopia. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult 5:105-111. doi: 10.1007/s40093-016-0121-y

Ranadheera CS, Mcconchie R, Phan-Thien K, Bell T (2017) Strategies for eliminating chicken manure odour in horticultural applications. World's Poultry Sci J 73:365-378. doi: 10.1017/S0043933917000083

Rossi JE, Loerch SC, Borger ML (1999) Poultry manure as a supplement in high concentrate diets limit-fed to beef cows. Professional Animal Scientist 15:258-263. doi: 10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31772-1

Sahoo UK,  Singh SL (2015) Integrated fish-pig and fish-poultry farming in East Kalcho, Saiha District of Mizoram, North-East India: An economic analysis. Int J Agric For 5:281-286. doi: 10.5923/j.ijaf.20150505.03

Salam NI, Malik A, Dewi R (2017) Formulasi pakan kotoran ayam dengan persentase yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan ikan bandeng Chanos Chanos di BBAP Takalar Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Octopus 6:563-568

San Pedro FM, Vara IAD, Bo´rquez JL, Gonzalez-Ronquill M (2015) The effect of feeding fresh swine manure, poultry waste, urea, molasses and bakery by-products ensiled for lambs. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult 4:273-278. doi: 10.1007/s40093-015-0106-2

Shiyam JO, Binang WB (2011) Effect of poultry manure and urea-n on flowering occurrence and leaf productivity of Amaranthus cruentus. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 15:13-15. doi: 10.4314/jasem.v15i1.65667

Singh RK, Vartak VR, Chavan SL, Desai AS, Khandagale PA, Sawant BT, Sapkale PH (2010) Management of waste organic matters and residential used water for culture and biomass production of red worm Tubifex tubifex. Int J Environ Waste Manage 5:140-151. doi: 10.1504/IJEWM.2010.029698

Suryono, Dewi WS, Sumarno (2014) Pemanfaatan limbah peternakan dalam konsep pertanian terpadu guna mewujudkan pertanian yang berkelanjutan. Caraka Tani J Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian 29:96-100. doi: 10.20961/carakatani.v29i2.13378

Thyagarajan D, Barathi M, Sakthivadivu R (2013) Scope of poultry waste utilization. IOSR J Agric Vet Sci 6:29-35

Ukanwoko AI, Ibeawuchi JA (2009) Nutrient intake and digestibility of West African dwarf bucks fed poultry waste-cassava peels based diets. Pak J Nutr 8:1461-1464. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2009.1461.1464 

UN (2013) World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Highlights and Advance Tables. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York

Unal HB, Bayraktar ÖH, Alkan I, Akdeniz RC (2015) Evaluation possibilities of chicken manure in Turkey. J Agric Eng 2:5-14. doi: 10.14654/ir.2015.154.116

Utete B, Dzikiti B (2013) Comparative study of maize bran and chicken manure as fish feed supplement: effects on growth rate of Oreochromis niloticus in pond culture systems. Int J Aquaculture 3:23-29. doi: 10.5376/ija.2013. 03.0006

Uzatici A (2012) The importance of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in feeding ruminants. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 7:283-287. doi: 10.3923/ajava.2012.283.287 

Wales A, McLaren I, Rabie A, Gosling RJ, Martelli F, Sayers R, Davies R (2013) Assessment of the anti-Salmonella activity of commercial formulations of organic acid products. Avian Pathol 42:268-275. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2013.782097

Wang N, Guo X, Yan Z, Wang W, Chen B, Ge F, Ye B (2016) A comprehensive analysis on spread and distribution characteristic of antibiotic resistance genes in livestock farms of Southeastern China. PLoS One 11(7):e0156889. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156889

Yang Q,  Ren S, Niu T, Guo Y, Qi S, Han X, Liu D, Pan F (2014) Distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken manure and manure-fertilized vegetables. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:1231-1241. doi: 10.1007/s11356- 013-1994-1

Yang Q, Zhang H, Guo Y, Tian T (2016) Influence of chicken manure fertilization on antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil and the endophytic bacteria of pakchoi. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:662. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13070662

 




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v5i2.2775

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© Copyright: BY-NC-SA