KARAKTERISTIK FISIK PAKAN IKAN APUNG NON-EKSTRUSI YANG DIBUAT MELALUI FERMENTASI Rhizopus oryzae

Asep Badru Zaman, Catur Sriherwanto, Etyn Yunita, Imam Suja'i

Abstract


Physical Characteristics of Non-Extruded Floating Fish Feed Produced through Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation 

ABSTRACT

To reduce the feed production cost of floating fish feed, an innovative method which is cheaper, easier, and simpler compared to the use of extruder machine is needed to provide buoyancy to fish feed. This research was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of floating fish feed prepared through fermention using Rhizopus oryzae on the mixed substrate consisting of commercial sinking fish feed, cassava bagasse, and Lemna minor. The resulting fermented feed was subsequently compared with commercial sinking fish feed in terms of its water stability, absorption, and floatability. The water stability curves of both feed types showed a similar pattern for 20 hours. Both decreased dramatically in the first 0.5 hours, from 100% to 81% for the fermented feed, and to 83% for the commercial feed. The shape of a 40-minute water absorption curve for both feed types was very similar. The fermented feed absorbed water nearly 4 times its initial dry weight, while commercial feed up to about twice as much as its initial dry weight. For three hours, both fermented and commercial floating pellets stayed afloat 100% without sinking. Thus, fermentation using R. oryzae deserves further development as an alternative way to provide buoyancy to fish feed.

Keywords: floatability, floating feed, sinking feed, water absorption, water stability

 

ABSTRAK

Untuk menekan biaya produksi pakan ikan apung, diperlukan inovasi pengapungan pakan ikan yang lebih murah, mudah, dan sederhana dibandingkan dengan penggunaan mesin ekstruder. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik fisik pakan apung hasil fermentasi menggunakan kapang Rhizopus oryzae pada substrat campuran pakan tenggelam komersial, onggok, dan Lemna minor. Pakan fermentasi ini lalu dibandingkan dengan pakan apung komersial dalam hal stabilitas dalam air, absorbsi air, dan daya apung. Stabilitas dalam air kedua jenis pakan memiliki pola yang mirip selama 20 jam. Stabilitas keduanya menurun drastis pada 0,5 jam pertama, dari 100% ke 81% untuk pakan apung fermentasi, dan ke 83% untuk pakan apung komersial. Bentuk kurva absorpsi air selama 40 menit untuk kedua jenis pakan sangatlah mirip. Pakan apung fermentasi menyerap air hampir 4 kali bobot kering awalnya, sedangkan pakan apung komersial hingga sekitar 2 kali bobot kering awalnya. Selama tiga jam, baik pakan apung fermentasi maupun komersial mengapung 100% tanpa tenggelam. Jadi, fermentasi menggunakan R. oryzae layak dikembangkan lebih lanjut sebagai cara pengapungan alternatif pakan ikan.

Kata Kunci: daya apung, daya serap air, stabilitas dalam air, pakan apung, pakan tenggelam


Keywords


floatability; floating feed; sinking feed; water absorption; water stability

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ayadi F, Rosentrater KA, Muthukumarappan K, Kannadhason S (2016) Effects of Amylose-to-amylopectin ratios on binding capacity of DDGS/soy-based aquafeed blends. J Food Res 5:43. doi: 10.5539/jfr.v5n5p43

De Cruz CR, Kamarudin MS, Saad CR, Ramezani-Fard E (2015) Effects of extruder die temperature on the physical properties of extruded fish pellets containing taro and broken rice starch. Anim Feed Sci Technol 199:137-145. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.11.010

Dirjen Perikanan Budidaya (2016) Harapan pada bantuan pakan mandiri. akuakultur indonesia 24:7

Erizal E, Lana M, Setyo R, Abbas B (2016)  Sintesis dan  karakterisasi hidrogel  superabsorben berbasis asam akrilat  hasil iradiasi gamma. J Ilm Apl Isot dan  Radiasi 11:27-38. doi: 10.17146/jair.2015.11.1.2697

Hashim R, Saat MAM (1992) The utilization of seaweed meals as binding agents in pelleted feeds for snakehead (Channa striatus) fry and their effects on growth. Aquaculture 108:299-308. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(92)90114-Z

Kamarudin MS, de Cruz CR, Saad CR, Romano N, Ramezani-Fard E (2018) Effects of extruder die head temperature and pre-gelatinized taro and broken rice flour level on physical properties of floating fish pellets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 236:122-130. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.007

Kurniawan A, Lestariadi RA (2017) Induction of fish pellet making machine to improve feed community program in catfish farmers in mojokerto regency. J Innov Appl Technol 3:433-438. doi: 10.21776/ub.jiat.2017.003.01.16

Leiskayanti Y, Sriherwanto C, Suja'i I (2017) Fermentasi menggunakan ragi tempe sebagai cara biologis pengapungan pakan ikan. J Bioteknol Biosains Indones 4:54-63. doi: 10.29122/jbbi.v4i2.2503

Ljøkjel K, Sørensen M, Storebakken T, Skrede A (2004) Digestibility of protein, amino acids and starch in mink (Mustela vison) fed diets processed by different extrusion conditions. Can J Anim Sci 84:673-680. doi: 10.4141/A01-089

Lindasari A (2017) Pembuatan pakan terapung terfermentasi Saccharomyces cerevisiae melalui proses non-ekstrusi. Undergraduate Thesis. Bogor Agricultural University

Misra CK, Sahu NP, Jain KK (2002) Effect of extrusion processing and steam pelleting diets on pellet durability, water absorption and physical response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. ASIAN Australas J Anim Sci 15:1354-1358. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2002.1354

Orire AM, Sadiku, SOE (2014) Development of farm made floating feed for aquaculture species. J Int Sci Publ: Agriculture dan Food 2:521-523

Paolucci M, Fabbrocini A, Volpe MG, Varricchio E, Coccia E (2012) Development of biopolymers as binders for feed for farmed aquatic organisms. In: Muchlisin Z (ed) Aquaculture, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp 3-34. http://cdn.intechweb.org/pdfs/ 27101.pdf. Accessed 10 October 2017

Rana KJ, Siriwardena S, Hasan MR (2009) Impact of rising feed ingredient prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production (No. 541) (p. ix). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Rasidi R, Haryadi J (2016) Evaluasi kebijakan pengembangan pakan mandiri. In prosiding forum inovasi teknologi akuakultur 1:689-702

Riaz MN, Asif M, Ali R (2009) Stability of vitamins during extrusion. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49:361-368. doi: 10.1080/10408390802067290

Saputra RA (2016) Uji kualitas fisik pakan terapung terfermentasi Saccharomyces cerevisiae melalui proses non-ekstrusi dan deep frying. Undergraduate Thesis. Bogor Agricultural University

Somerville C, Cohen M, Pantanella E, Stankus A, Lovatelli A (2014) Fish in aquaponics. In: Small-scale aquaponic food production: integrated fish and plant farming, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No 589 (pp. 103-121). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

Sriherwanto C (2010) Studies on the solid state fermentation of cassava bagasse for animal feed. Doctoral Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany

Sriherwanto C, Suja'i I, Soraya S (2017) Pemanfaatan kapang Rhizopus sp. sebagai agen hayati pengapung pakan ikan. J Mikol Indones 1:70-81

Van Rooijen C (2016) Effect of extrusion conditions on the Maillard reaction and in vitro digestibility in two dry dog foods. In: Maillard reaction products in pet foods. PhD Thesis. Wageningen University




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v5i1.2793

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© Copyright: BY-NC-SA