KERAGAMAN UBI KAYU (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) HASIL PERBANYAKAN IN VITRO BERDASARKAN KARAKTER MORFOLOGI DAN PENANDA ISSR

Fajri Hartanti, Miftahudin Miftahudin, N Sri Hartati

Abstract


Morphological and Molecular Diversity of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Resulted from In Vitro Propagation

In vitro propagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on medium containing plant growth regulator (PGR) may induce morphological variation. This study aimed to analyze the morphological and genetic diversity of 13 genotypes of cassava resulted from in vitro propagation and stem cuttings based on 11 vegetative characters and 7 ISSR markers. Morphological and genetic characters were scored and used for clustering using NTSYS-pc 2.11a. Roti control and Adira 4 control genotypes that were in vitro propagated without PGR addition showed different morphological characters with Roti variant and FEC-25 genotypes that were in vitro propagated with the addition of PGR. Morphological and molecular characters of 13 genotypes showed high diversity. Clustering analysis based on morphological characters classified the in vitro propagated and control plants into four groups at 45.6% similarity. Clustering analysis based on molecular characters classified the plants into three groups at 66.0% similarity.

Keywords: cassava; diversity; in vitro; ISSR; morphology

ABSTRAK

Perbanyakan tanaman ubi kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) secara in vitro menggunakan zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT) diyakini dapat menginduksi variasi morfologi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis keragaman morfologi dan molekuler dari 13 genotipe ubi kayu hasil perbanyakan in vitro dan perbanyakan dengan stek batang berdasarkan 11 karakter vegetatif dan 7 penanda ISSR. Karakter morfologi dan molekuler diskor untuk analisis kelompok menggunakan program NTSYS-pc 2.11a. Genotipe Roti kontrol dan Adira 4 kontrol yang merupakan hasil perbanyakan in vitro tanpa penambahan ZPT menunjukkan perbedaan variasi morfologi dengan genotipe Roti varian dan FEC-25 yang merupakan tanaman hasil perbanyakan dengan penambahan ZPT. Hasil analisis pada 13 genotipe menunjukkan adanya keragaman yang tinggi. Hasil analisis kelompok berdasarkan penanda morfologi memisahkan antara genotipe hasil perbanyakan secara in vitro yang ditambah ZPT dengan tanaman kontrolnya ke dalam 4 kelompok dengan nilai koefisen similaritas 45,6%. Hasil analisis kelompok berdasarkan penanda molekuler memisahkan antara genotipe hasil perbanyakan secara in vitro yang ditambah ZPT dengan tanaman kontrolnya ke dalam 3 kelompok dengan nilai koefisen similaritas 66,0%.


Keywords


in vitro; ISSR; keragaman; morfologi; ubi kayu

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v6i2.3055

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