INDUKSI MUTASI DAN SELEKSI IN VITRO TANAMAN GANDUM (Triticum aestivum L.)

Laela Sari, Agus Purwito, Didy Soepandi, Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih, Enny Sudarmonowati

Abstract


INDUCTION MUTATION AND SELECTION OF IN VITRO PLANT OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)

The goal of this research was to produce wheat crop which is tolerant to lowland condition.Six varieties were used, Dewata, Selayar, Alibey, Oasis, Rabe and HP1744. This research consisted of 4 stages: production of the best callus on MS medium containing 3 g/L 2.4-D, induced mutation of embryogenic callus using EMS, in vitro selection of callus at temperature of 27–35°C, and callus regeneration. The best result for callus production was 76% for Dewata and 70% for Selayar varieties. Higher concentration of EMS and longer soaking time decreased the percentage of callus growth. LC50 for Dewata was 0.3% EMS at 30 minutes and that for Selayar was 0.1% EMS at 60 minutes. The higher the temperature was, the lower was the adaptation tolerant of the plants, and callus growth was inhibited. At the highest temperature (35°C) the callus did not grow at all.

Keywords: Induced mutation, Triticum aestivum, EMS, in vitro selection, callus


ABSTRAK

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merakit tanaman gandum yang toleran pada dataran rendah. Varietas yang digunakan ada 6 yaitu Dewata, Selayar, Alibey, Oasis, Rabe dan HP-1744. Penelitian terdiri atas empat tahap yaitu induksi pembentukan kalus terbaik menggunakan media MS + 3 g/L 2,4-D (dipilih dua varietas yang terbaik), induksi mutasi kalus embriogenik menggunakan EMS, seleksi kalus in vitro pada suhu 27–35°C, dan regenerasi. Hasil induksi kalus terbaik terdapat pada varietas Dewata sebesar 76% dan Selayar sebesar 70%. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi EMS dan semakin lama waktu perendaman yang digunakan maka semakin menurun persentase pertumbuhan kalus. LC50 varietas Dewata adalah EMS 0,3% waktu 30 menit sedangkan LC50 varietas Selayar adalah EMS 0,1% waktu 60 menit.Semakin tinggi suhunya maka semakin berkurang toleran adaptasi tanaman tersebut, dan pertumbuhan kalus semakin sedikit. Bahkan pada suhu tertinggi yaitu suhu 35°C tidak ada pertumbuhan kalus sama sekali.

Kata Kunci: Induksi mutasi, Triticum aestivum, EMS, seleksi in vitro, kalus


Keywords


induced mutation; Triticum aestivum; EMS; in vitro selection; callus

Full Text:

PDF

References


Asadi (2013) Pemuliaan mutase untuk perbaikan terhadap umur dan produktivitas pada kedelai. J Agrobiogen 9:135-142

Carver BF (2009) Wheat science and trade. Edition First. Wiley Blacwell Publissing. USA. P.569

Das A, Gosal SS, Sidhu JS, Dhaliwal HS (2000) Induction of mutations for heat tolerance in potato by using in vitro culture and radiation. Eupytica 114:205-209

Datta SK (2001) Mutation studies on garden chrysanthemum: A review. Sci Hort 7:159-199

George EF, Sherrington TD (1984) Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. Handbook and Directory of Commercial Laboratories. Exegetics, England

Hassan M, Ahmed Z, Munir M, Malik SI, Shahzad K (2009) Effect of sorbitol in callus induction and plant regeneration in wheat. African J Biotech 8:6529-6535

Hsissou D, Bouharmont J (1994) In vitro selection and characterization of drought-tolerant plants of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf). Agronomie 2:65-70

Jain SM (2010) Mutagenesis in crop improvement under the climate change. Rom Biotech Lett 15:88-94

Maluszynski M, Ahloowalia BS, Sigurbjomsson B (1995) Application in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement. Euphytica 85:303-315

Medina FIS, Amano E, Tano S (2005) Mutation Breeding Manual. Japan. Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)

Ndou VN, Shimelis H, Odindo A, Modi AT (2013) Response of selected wheat genotypes to ethylmethanesulphonate concentration, treatment temperature and duration. Sci Res Essays 8:189-196. doi: 10.5897/SRE12.543

Nur A, Azrai M, Subagio H, Soeranto, Ragapadmi, Sustiprajitno dan Trikoesoemaningtyas (2013) Perkembangan pemuliaan gandum di Indonesia. IPTEK Tanaman Pangan 8:97-105

Nur A, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Khumaida N, Yahya S (2012) Evaluasi dan keragaman genetik galur gandum introduksi (Triticum aestivum L.) di agroekosistem tropis. J Agrivigor. 11:230-243

Purnamaningsih R (2006) Induksi kalus dan optimasi regenerasi empat varietas padi melalui kultur in vitro. J AgroBiogen 2:74-80

Rashid H, Ghani RA, Chaudhry Z (2002) Effect of media, growth regulators and genotypes on callus induction and regeneration in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Biotechnology 1:49-54

Sakin MA (2002) The use of induced micro mutation for quantitative characters after EMS and gamma ray treatments in durum wheat breeding. Pak J App Sci 2:1102-1107

Sakin MA, Yildirim A (2004) Induced mutations for yield and its components in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Food Agric & Environ 2:285-290

Sarker RH, Biswas A (2002) In vitro plantlet regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Tissue Cult 12:155-165

Satyavathi VV, Jauhar PP, Elias EM, Rao MB (2004) Effect of growth regulators on in vitro plant regeneration in durum wheat. Crop Sci 44:1839-1846

Shah MM, Khalki Q, Khan UW, Shah SAH, Shah SH, Hassan A, Perver A (2009) Variation in genotypic responses and biochemical analysis of callus induction in cultivated wheat. Gen Mol Res 8:783-793

Sisharmini A, Aniversari A, Sustiprijatno (2010) Induksi kalus dan regenerasi beberapa genotype gandum (Triticum aestivum L) secara in vitro. J AgroBiogen 6:57-64

Sukmadjaja D, Purnamaningsih R, Priyatno TP (2013) Seleksi in vitro dan pengujian mutan tanaman pisang ambon kuning untuk ketahanan terhadap penyakit layu fusarium. J Agrobiogen 9:66-76

Van Harten AM (1998) Mutation Breeding: Theory and Practical Applications. Cambridge University, New York, pp 342-353

Viswanathan P, Reddy VRK (1996) Genetics of early flowering mutants in triticale. Acta Agronomica Hungaria. 46:389-391

Yasmin S, Khan IA, Khatri A, Seema N, Nizamani GS, Arain MA (2009) In vitro plant regeneration in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak J Bot 41:2869-2876




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v3i2.36

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© Copyright: BY-NC-SA