TELAAH KOMPREHENSIF DIABETES MELITUS: KLASIFIKASI, GEJALA, DIAGNOSIS, PENCEGAHAN, DAN PENGOBATAN A Comprehensive Review of Diabetes Mellitus: Classification, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

Main Article Content

Dudi Hardianto

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. In general, diabetes is classified into type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), gestational, and other specific diabetes. The causes of diabetes are genetic disorders and environmental. Common symptoms of diabetes include: polydipsia, polyphagia, glycosuria, polyuria, dehydration, fatigue, weight loss, reduced vision, cramps, constipation, and candida infection. Test for diagnosis of diabetes include: fasting plasma glucose test, plasma glucose test after 2 hours of 75 g oral glucose administration, the glycated hemoglobin test (HbA1C), and random blood glucose test. Prevention of T1DM is still difficult because of the limited knowledge of metabolic, genetic, and immunological processes in the development of T1DM. T2DM is prevented by lifestyle and medical intervention. Insulin is the only drug for T1DM, whereas T2DM is treated with metformin as drug’s primary choice for reducing blood glucose levels.


Diabetes melitus merupakan penyakit kelainan metabolisme yang ditandai dengan hiperglikemia. Secara umum, diabetes diklasifikasikan menjadi: diabetes melitus tipe 1 (DMT1), diabetes melitus tipe 2 (DMT2), gestasional, dan diabetes spesifik lain. Penyebab diabetes adalah kelainan genetik dan lingkungan. Gejala umum diabetes antara lain: polidipsia, polifagia, glikosuria, poliuria, dehidrasi, kelelahan, penurunan berat badan, daya penglihatan berkurang, kram, konstipasi, dan infeksi candida. Pemeriksaaan untuk diagnosis diabetes meliputi: pemeriksaan glukosa plasma saat puasa, pemeriksaan glukosa plasma setelah 2 jam pemberian glukosa oral 75 g, pemeriksaan hemoglobin terglikasi (HbA1C), dan pemeriksaan glukosa darah acak. Pencegahan DMT1 masih sulit karena terbatasnya pengetahuan proses metabolisme, genetik, dan imunologi pada perkembangan DMT1. DMT2 dicegah dengan intervensi gaya hidup dan intervensi medis. Insulin merupakan satu-satunya obat untuk DMT1, sedangkan DMT2 diobati dengan metformin sebagai pilihan utama dan non obat untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa dalam darah.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hardianto, D. (2021). TELAAH KOMPREHENSIF DIABETES MELITUS: KLASIFIKASI, GEJALA, DIAGNOSIS, PENCEGAHAN, DAN PENGOBATAN: A Comprehensive Review of Diabetes Mellitus: Classification, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment. Jurnal Bioteknologi & Biosains Indonesia (JBBI), 7(2), 304-317. https://doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v7i2.4209
Section
Review Article
Author Biography

Dudi Hardianto, Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT)

 

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