FITOREMEDIASI KANDUNGAN KROMIUM PADA LIMBAH CAIR MENGGUNAKAN TANAMAN AIR

Anna Safarrida, Ngadiman ., Jaka Widada

Abstract


Existence of heavy metals in industrial waste is gaining global attention since their negative impact to environment. One of the efforts to solve the problem was to use plant to absorb metal in liquid medium, known as rhizofiltration. This research was aimed to select aquatic plants which showed relative resistantce and susceptibility to chromium. Four species of aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Salvinia sp.) were grown in artificial medium (Hoagland) supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 ppm chromium. The plants resistance and absorption toward chromium was observed based on the morphology and chromium content in their biomass. Based on their resistance to and absorption of chromium, the selected plants were tested further in liquid waste of tanning industry. In Hoagland medium, Salvinia sp. demonstrated 67.2% higher resistance and absorption toward chromium while that of P. stratiotes 20.3% lower compared to other plants which were tested. This result could be applicable in reducing such environmental pollutant as the heavy metal chromium from industrial waste.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, chromium, Hoagland medium, aquatic plants, liquid waste

 

ABSTRAK

Logam berat dalam limbah industri merupakan bahan pencemar lingkungan yang mendapatkan perhatian global. Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah memanfaatkan tanaman untuk menyerap logam dalam medium cair atau dikenal sebagai fitoremediasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tanaman air lokal yang tahan dan peka secara relatif terhadap kromium. Empat spesies tanaman air (Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, dan Salvinia sp.) ditumbuhkan pada medium buatan (Hoagland) yang dipasok kromium 0, 1, 2, 4, dan 8 ppm. Pengujian toleransi tanaman dan serapan terhadap kromium dilakukan berdasarkan pengamatan morfologis serta analisis kadar kromium dalam biomasa. Berdasarkan daya tahan dan serapan kromium, tanaman terseleksi diujikan lebih lanjut dalam limbah cair industri penyamakan kulit. Dalam medium Hoagland, Salvinia sp. mempunyai ketahanan dan serapan kromium lebih tinggi sebesar 67,2% sedangkan P. stratiotes mempunyai ketahanan dan serapan kromium lebih rendah sebesar 20,3% dibandingkan tanaman lain yang diujikan. Hasil penelitian ini dapat diterapkan untuk mengurangi bahan pencemar lingkungan berupa logam berat kromium dari limbah industri.

Kata Kunci: Fitoremediasi, kromium, medium Hoagland, tanaman air, limbah cair


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v2i2.509

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