ANALISA KANDUNGAN ANDROGRAPHOLIDE PADA TANAMAN SAMBILOTO (Andrographis paniculata) DARI 12 LOKASI DI PULAU JAWA

Juwartina Ida Royani, Dudi Hardianto, Sri Wahyuni

Abstract


Concentration of active compounds contained in medicinal plants is determined by genetic factors as well as growth environment. In sambiloto plants both factors have major impacts on the formation of diterpene lactone, andrographolide. Variation of sampling time, cultivation, and processing methods causes variation in the content of active compounds of the same plant. The purpose of this study was to determine andrographolide concentration of sambiloto plants obtained from 12 different locations with various planting conditions in Java Island. andrographolide content of sambiloto was extracted by methanol and analyzed using HPLC. The results showed that the concentrations of andrographolide varied from 0.29 to 4.44% with an average of 2.19% on dry weight basis. The highest concentration of 4.44% was detected in sambiloto accession from Wonokaton Village, Pasuruan Regency while the lowest one was from Conggeang Kulon Village, Sumedang Regency. Three sambiloto accessions had potential to be further developed as their andrographolide concentrations were above 3%, which was higher than those from all the others.

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, andrographolide, active coumpound, HPLC, Java island

 

ABSTRAK

Kadar senyawa aktif yang terkandung pada tanaman obat selain dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetik juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan tumbuhnya. Pada tanaman sambiloto kedua faktor tersebut berpengaruh sangat besar pada pembentukan diterpen lakton, andrographolide. Adanya variasi pada waktu pengambilan sampel, tempat penanaman, metode pengolahan dan lain sebagainya berakibat pada perbedaan dalam kandungan senyawa aktif pada tanaman yang sama. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kadar andrographolide dari tanaman sambiloto yang diambil dari 12 lokasi tumbuh dengan kondisi penanaman yang berbeda di Pulau Jawa. Daun tanaman sambiloto diekstrak dengan methanol kemudian dianalisis kandungan andrographolide menggunakan HPLC. Kadar andrographolide yang dihasilkan bervariasi berkisar antara 0,29-4,44% dengan kadar rata-rata adalah 2,19% berat kering. Kadar tertinggi didapatkan pada aksesi dari Desa Wonokaton Kabupaten Pasuruan dengan kadar andrographolide adalah 4,44% sedangkan kadar yang terendah didapatkan pada aksesi dari Desa Conggeang Kulon, Kab. Sumedang. Berdasarkan data kandungan andrographolide, diperoleh 3 aksesi sambiloto yang potensial untuk dikembangkan menjadi aksesi unggulan karena kadar andrographolidenya di atas 3%, melebihi semua yang lain.

Kata kunci: Andrographis paniculata, andrographolide, senyawa aktif, HPLC, pulau Jawa

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v1i1.547

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