Main Article Content
River and estuary areas commonly exhibit complex and heterogeneous habitats. Thus, revealing the distribution of riverbed morphologies could promote the area management and habitats protection. Since the remote sensing method and manual survey are limited to use, side-scan sonar performs an expectant outcome in underwater habitat imaging. In shallow water and stream areas, low-cost side-scan sonar imaging has become a notable subject of study, yet its use in Indonesia is still limited. This study describes an investigation of the use of a recreational-grade side-scan sonar for stream underwater imaging. A visual inspection and interpretation were implemented using a free-cost sonar software. The result shows some underwater objects and debris could be portrayed perfectly and this indicates that the inexpensive sonar system is appropriate to be used in shallow water and stream areas with a non-rough sea surface. It is suggested that this system could provide a satisfactory product to the users who do not require high accuracy and high resolution of riverbed imagery.
Keywords: estuary, river, underwater mapping, acoustic remote sensing, low-cost, side-scan sonar.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work
Africa, S., Towner, A. V, Underhill, L. G., Jewell, O. J. D., & Smale, M. J. (2013). Environmental influences on the abundance and sexual composition of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in Gansbaai, South Africa. PLOS ONE, 8(8), 1â€“11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071197.
Arney, R. N., Froehlich, C. Y. M., & Kline, R. J. (2017). Recruitment patterns of juvenile fish at an artificial reef area in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 9(1), 79â€“92. https://doi.org/10.1080/19425120.2016.1265031.
Burguera, A., & Oliver, G. (2016). High-resolution underwater mapping using side-scan sonar. PLoS ONE, 11(1), 1â€“41. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146396.
Buscombe, D, Grams, P. E., & Kaplinski, M. A. (2014). Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acousticsâ€¯: 1 . Spectral properties of scattering. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 2674â€“2691. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JF003189.Received.
Buscombe, Daniel. (2017). Shallow water benthic imaging and substrate characterization using recreational-grade sidescan-sonar. Environmental Modelling and Software, 89, 1â€“18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.12.003.
Cummings, G. A. (2015). Habitat Suitability and Availability for Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus Mykiss in the Canyon Reservoir Tailrace and Evaluation of Side Scan Sonar for Habitat Mapping in a Semi-wadable River. M.S. thesis, Texas State University.
Diaz, R. J., Solan, M., & Valente, R. M. (2004). A review of approaches for classifying benthic habitats and evaluating habitat quality. Journal of Environmental Management, 73, 165â€“181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.06.004.
Doherty, M. F., Landowski, J. G., Maynard, P. F., Uber, G. T.,
Fries, D. W., & Maltz, F. H. (1989). Side scan sonar object classification algorithms. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology (pp. 417â€“424). Durham, NH, USA, USA: IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/UUST.1989.754734.
Febriawan, H. K., Helmholz, P., & Parnum, I. M. (2019). Support Vector Machine and Decision Tree based classification of side-scan sonar mosaics using textural features. In The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (Vol. XLII, pp. 10â€“14). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W13-27-2019.
Greene, A., Rahman, A. F., Kline, R., & Rahman, M. S. (2018). Side scan sonar: A cost-efficient alternative method for measuring seagrass cover in shallow environments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 207, 250â€“258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2018.04.017.
Hamill, D., Buscombe, D., & Wheaton, J. M. (2018). Alluvial substrate mapping by automated texture segmentation of recreational-grade side scan sonar imagery. PLoS ONE, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194373.
Hamilton, L. J. (2017). Towards autonomous characterisation of side scan sonar imagery for seabed type by unmanned underwater vehicles. In Proceedings of Acoustics 2017 (pp. 1â€“10). Perth, Australia.
Hasan, R. C., Ierodiaconou, D., & Monk, J. (2012). Evaluation of four supervised learning methods for benthic habitat mapping using backscatter from multi-beam sonar. Remote Sensing, 4(11), 3427â€“3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs4113427.
Humminbird. (2016). HELIX G2 and HELIX G2N series operations manual.
International Hydrographic Bureau. (2008). IHO standards for hydrographic surveys, 5th edition, SP no.44.
Kaeser, A. J., & Litts, T. L. (2008). An assessment of deadhead Logs and large woody debris using side scan sonar and field surveys in streams of Southwest Georgia. Fisheries, 33(12), 589â€“597. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446-33.12.589.
Kaeser, A. J., & Litts, T. L. (2010). A novel technique for mapping habitat in navigable streams using low-cost side scan sonar. Fisheries, 35(4), 163â€“174. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446-35.4.163.
Kaeser, A. J., & Litts, T. L. (2013). An illustrated guide to low-cost, side scan sonar habitat mapping. TXAFS- San Marcos.
Kaeser, A. J., Litts, T. L., & Tracy, T. W. (2013). Using low-cost side-scan sonar for benthic mapping throughout the lower Flint River, Georgia, USA. River And Research Applications, 644(January 2012), 634â€“644. https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.
Laurent, W. K. (2017). Field study of scour critical bridges in Rhode Island. M.Sc. Thesis, University Of Rhode Island.
Lianantonakis, M., & Petillot, Y. R. (2007). Sidescan sonar segmentation using texture descriptors and active contours. In IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (Vol. 32, pp. 744â€“752). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/JOE.2007.893683.
Parnum, I. M., Ellement, T., Perry, M. A., Parsons, M. J. G., &
Tecchiato, S. (2017). Using recreational echo-sounders for marine science studies. In Proceedings of Acoustics 2017 (pp. 1â€“10). Perth, Australia.
Rhinelander, J. (2017). Feature Extraction and Target Classification of Side-Scan Sonar Images. In 2016 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). Athens, Greece. https://doi.org/10.1109/SSCI.2016.7850074.