Konsumsi Energi Pada Alat Pengering Surya dan Tipe Bak Untuk Pengeringan Biji Kakao

Lamhot P. Manalu

Abstract


Crop drying is essential for preservation in agricultural applications. It is performed either using fossil fuels in an artificial mechanical drying process or by placing the crop under the open sun. The first method is costly and has a negative impact on the environment, while the second method is totally dependent on the weather. The drying process requires a lot of energy in relation to the amount of water that must be evaporated from the product. It is estimated that 12% of the total energy used by the food industries and agriculture absorbed in this process. Due to the limitation of energy resources, it is important to keep researching and developing of diversification and optimization of energy This study aims to assess the use of energy for cocoa drying using solar energy dryer and bin-type dryer, as well as to determine the drying efficiency of each type of dryer. The results showed that the efficiency of the solar dryer drying system ranges between 36% to 46%, while the tub-type dryers between 21.7% to 33.1%. The specific energy of solar dryer ranged from 6.17-7.87 MJ / kg, while the tub-type dryers 8.58-13.63 MJ / kg. Dryer efficiency is influenced by the level of solar irradiation and the amount of drying load, the higher the irradiation received and more cocoa beans are dried, the drying efficiency is also higher and the specific energy further down.

Proses pengeringan memerlukan banyak energi sehubungan dengan banyaknya air yang harus diuapkan dari bahan yang dikeringkan. Pengeringan dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan pengering mekanis berbahan bakar fosil atau dengan menempatkan produk di bawah matahari terbuka. Metode pertama adalah mahal dan memiliki dampak negatif pada lingkungan, sedangkan metode kedua sangat tergantung pada cuaca. Diperkirakan bahwa 12% dari total energi yang dipergunakan oleh industri pangan dan pertanian diserap untuk proses ini. Mengingat semakin terbatasnya sumber energi bahan bakar minyak maka usaha diversifikasi dan optimasi energi untuk pengeringan perlu terus diteliti dan dikembangkan. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan energi surya sebagai sumber energi terbarukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji penggunaan energi untuk pengeringan kakao dengan memakai pengering energi surya dan pengering tipe bak, serta untuk mengetahui efisiensi pengeringan dari masing-masing tipe pengering. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi total sistem pengeringan alat pengering surya berkisar antara 36% dan 46%, sedangkan pengering tipe bak antara 21.7% dan 33.1%. Kebutuhan energi spesifik alat pengering surya berkisar antara 6.17-7.87 MJ/kg, sedangkan alat pengering tipe bak 8.58-13.63 MJ/kg. Efisiensi alat pengering dipengaruhi oleh tingkat iradiasi surya dan jumlah beban pengeringan, semakin tinggi iradiasi yang diterima pengering serta semakin banyak biji kakao yang dikeringkan, maka efisiensi pengeringan juga semakin tinggi dan kebutuhan energi spesifik semakin turun.


Keywords: energy, efficiency, cocoa, solar dryer, bin-type dryer.


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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jsti.v17i3.3433

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