Akhmadi Puguh Raharjo


Non-structural elements of multi-story buildings need to be taken into account in the mitigation of earthquake in order to ensure the safety of the occupants. The purpose of this study is to obtain information related to the hazard management of multi-story buildings’ non-structural elements from the authorities, namely FEMA and SPRINT-Lab. This study is a qualitative study focused on reviewing the information that is relevant for future adaptation in Indonesia. The collected literature was then analyzed descriptively. The results of this review underlined the three most important stages that became the focus of hazard management from multi-story buildings’ non-structural elements, namely: the process of identification, the process of prioritization and the process of determining mitigation actions that need to be taken. Future research should be focused on developing a methodology that can be used to calculate the risk level of building occupants by considering the number of occupants and the level of danger of each object present with the occupant's mobility pattern in a certain area and time.

Full Text:



Department of Disaster Management (DDM). 2017. Manual on Non-Structural (Falling Hazards) Mitigation for Schools. Department of Disaster Management, Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs, Royal Government of Bhutan. 71p

Dropped Objects Prevention Scheme (DROPS). 2015. Electronic Drops Calculator. [terhubung berkala] https://www.dropsonline.org/assets/documents/Dropped-Object-Consequence-Calculator-2018.zip [30 April 2019].

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2012. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage – A Practical Guide. FEMA E-74. 885p.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2005. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation for Nonstructural Elements. FEMA Field Manual 74-FM. 50p.

Gillengerten, J.D. 2001. 13. Design of Nonstructural Systems and Components. Dalam F. Naeim (Eds). The Seismic Design Handbook (pp. 681-721). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

Grimaz, S., and P. Malisan. 2016. VISUS: a pragmatic expert-based methodology for the seismic safety triage of school facilities. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata 57(2), 91-110.

Ikuta, E., M. Miyano, F. Nagashima, A. Nishimura, H.Tanaka, Y. Nakamori, K. Kajiwara and Y. Kumagai. 2004. Measurement of The Human Body Damage Caused by Collapsed BUILDING. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Vancouver Canada.

Iserson K.V. and Moskop J.C. 2007. Triage in medicine, part I: concept, history, and types. Ann. Emergency Med., 49, 275-281.

Marano, K.D., D.J. Wald and T.I. Allen. 2010. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: a quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses. Nat Hazards 53(2010), 319-328.

Murty, C.V.R., R. Goswami, A.R. Vijayanarayanan, R.P. Kumar and V.V. Mehta. 2013. Introduction to Earthquake Protection of Non-Structural Elements in Buildings. Gujarat State Disaster Mangement Authority, Government of Gujarat. 176p. [terhubung berkala] http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/IITK-GSDMA/NSE_002_31May2013.pdf [15 April 2019].

Stein, S., and J. L. Stein. 2014. Playing Against Nature: Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World, AGU, Washington,D.C., https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118620786.

Takahashi, T., S. Watanabe, H. Nakaizumi and T. Saito. 2012. Shaking Table Test for Evaluation of Human Loss by Furniture during Strong Motion. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisboa, Portugal.

Tokyo Metropolitan Government. 2015. Disaster Preparedness Tokyo / Let’s get prepared. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. 324p.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jstmb.v14i1.3557


  • There are currently no refbacks.