KOMBINASI TEKNIK KONSERVASI TANAH DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP HASIL JAGUNG DAN EROSI TANAH PADA LAHAN KERING DI SUB DAS BIYONGA KABUPATEN GORONTALO

Nurdin Nurdin

Abstract


Lahan kering merupakan salah satu lahan yang potensial untuk pengembangan jagung, tetapi umumnya petani jagung menggunakannya tanpa menerapkan teknik konservasi tanah, sehingga erosi tanah sukar dikendalikan dan produktifitasnya menurun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kombinasi teknik konservasi tanah yang dapat menekan erosi tanah dan meningkatkan hasil jagung. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Sub DAS Biyonga Kabupaten Gorontalo. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktorial dengan dua factor, yaitu faktor pertama penanaman menurut kontur dan faktor kedua penanaman dalam strip yang masing-masing factor terdiri dari lima perlakuan pupuk kandang dan mulsa serta masing-masing tiga ulangan. Pengukuran erosi tanah menggunakan petak erosi beserta drum penampung sedimen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penanaman menurut kontur meningkatkan hasil jagung sebanyak ±1,24 kali lebih banyak dibanding penanaman dalam strip, tetapi erosi tanah sebanyak ±1,20 kali lebih banyak dibanding penanaman dalam strip. Hasil jagung tertinggi sebanyak 5,82 ton ha-1 dan erosi tanah sebanyak 1,34 ton ha-1 tahun-1. Sementara, erosi tanah pada penanaman dalam strip hanya 1,08 ton ha-1 tahun-1 dengan hasil jagung sebanyak 4,80 ton ha-1. Dosis pupuk kandang terbaikadalah 10 ton ha-1, sementara untuk mulsa adalah 12 ton ha-1.

 

Kata Kunci: erosi, strip, pertanaman, lahan kering, jagung

 

Abstract

Upland is one of land potentials for maize development, but most farmers were using upland without soil conservation, so the soil erosion is difficult controlling and productivity is decreasing. This research was aimed to find of soil conservation technique combinations which can minimize soil erosion and rising of maize yields. This research was carried out in Biyonga Sub-Watershed of Gorontalo Regency. Experimental was conducted in afactorial random block design with2 main factors, where first factor was contour cultivation and the second was strip cropping which each factors consisted of 5 treatments for manure and mulching with 3 replicates. Erosion box and their soil collector were used to measure of soil erosion. Results showed that contour cultivation is ±1.24 higher than strip cropping toincrease maize yields, but soil erosion was ±1.20 higher than strip cropping. The highest of maize yield was 5.82 ha-1 tahun-1 and their soil erosion was 1.34 ton ha-1 tahun-1. Soil erosion on the strip cropping was only 1.08 tonha-1 tahun-1 although maize yields were only 4.80 ton ha-1. The best dosage for manure and mulching were 10 ton ha-1 and 12 ton ha-1.

 

Keywords: erosion, strip, cropping, upland, maize


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v13i3.1393

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