Karakterisasi Ekstrak Tapioka dan Tapioka Ionik sebagai Biokoagulan dalam Proses Pengolahan Air

Eka Prihatinningtyas, Agus Jatnika Effendi

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The ability of tapioca to act as natural coagulants (biocoagulants) was tested using artificial water. As turbidity was added as kaolin. This research aimed to determine the compounds and or groups that act as natural coagulant and to describe the mechanism of flocculation: extraction which yields tapioca extract and ion exchange which yields ionic tapioca. Coagulation process was performed at three different initial turbidities, i.e. 50 NTU (low turbidities), 150 NTU (middle turbidities) and 300 NTU (high initial turbidites). At the same condition (coagulant dose 20 ppmv, pH 5), ionic tapioca yield better turbidity removal compared tapioca extract i.e 11.2% at low initial turbidites; 2.4% at middle initial turbidities and 12.8% at high initial turbidities. FTIR analysis  showed that tapioca extract and ionic tapioca contained of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amides groups which  can act as active components on coagulation process. The presence of those groups caused positive and negative charges (amphoter). Coagulation process ran efficiently at pH 5 because the isoelectric point is obtained at that condition.

Keyword : bio coagulants, coagulation,  coagulant agents, ionic tapioca, tapioca extract,

ABSTRAK 

Kemampuan tepung tapioka sebagai koagulan alami (biokoagulan) telah diuji dengan menggunakan limbah artifisial dari kaolin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan senyawa atau gugus yang berperan sebagai biokoagulan dan menjelaskan mekanisme flokulasi yang terjadi. Perlakuan awal tapioca sebelum digunakan sebagai koagulan adalah ekstraksi yang menghasilkan ekstrak tapioka  dan pertukaran ion  yang menghasilkan tapioka ionik. Proses koagulasi dilakukan pada 3 macam kekeruhan awal yaitu 50 NTU (kekeruhan rendah), 150 NTU (kekeruhan sedang) dan 300 NTU (kekeruhan tinggi). Pada kondisi operasi yang sama (dosis 20 ppmv dan pH 5), tapioka ionik memberikan efisiensi penurunan kekeruhan yang lebih tinggi, yaitu sebesar 11,0% pada kekeruhan awal 50 NTU; 2,4% pada kekeruhan awal 150 NTU dan 12,8% pada kekeruhan awal 300 NTU. Hasil analisa FTIR menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak tapioka dan tapioka ionik mempunyai gugus karboksil (-OH), gugus karboksil (-COOH) dan gugus amida (-CONH2). Keberadaan ketiga gugus tersebut menyebabkan biokoagulan ini memiliki muatan positif dan negatif sekaligus (amfoter). Proses koagulasi berjalan dengan efisien pada pH 5 karena titik isoelektrik diperoleh pada pH tersebut.

Kata kunci : biokoagulan, koagulasi, agen koagulan, ekstrak tapioka, tapioka ionik


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v19i2.2041

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