Perhitungan Potensi Limbah Padat Kelapa Sawit untuk Sumber Energi Terbaharukan dengan Metode LCA

Joko Prayitno Susanto, Arif Dwi Santoso, Nawa Suwedi

Abstract


Proses produksi crude palm oil (CPO) dan biodiesel kelapa sawit menghasilkan limbah padat sebanyak 35-40% dari total tandan buah segar (TBS) yang diolah, dalam bentuk tandan buah kosong, serat, cangkang buah dan abu bakar. Keberadaan limbah yang melimpah ini berpotensi mencemari lingkungan bila tidak tertangani dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas dan menghitung potensi limbah padat sawit menjadi energi terbarukan dan pengaruhnya terhadap peningkatan nilai net energy ratio (NER) dan net energy balance (NEB). Dalam penelitian ini digunakan metode life cycle assessment (LCA) untuk menghitung neraca limbah padat yang hasilnya akan dikonversikan ke dalam nilai faktor energi dari sumber pustaka yang terpercaya. Hasil neraca massa limbah sawit menunjukkan bahwa total limbah padat serat dan cangkang yang dihasilkan setiap pengolahan 1 ton TBS adalah 130 kg dan 65 kg. Limbah ini bila digunakan sebagai bahan bakar boiler akan berpotensi menghasilkan energi sebesar 10.118 MJ/ton biodiesel. Tambahan energi terbarukan ini akan meningkatkan nilai NER dan NEB secara signifikan. Nilai NEB naik 27.199 MJ menjadi sekitar 37.317 MJ (37,2%) dan nilai NER naik dari 3,19 menjadi 4,01 atau meningkat 25,5%.

Kata kunci : CPO, biodiesel, kelapa sawit, limbah padat sawit, NER, NEB, LCA

 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v18i2.2046

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v18i2.2046.g1890

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