Top-Down and Bottom-Up Method on Measuring CO2 Emission from Road-Based Transportation System (Case Study: Entire Fuel Consumption, Bus Rapid Transit, and Highway in Jakarta, Indonesia)

Rizky Pratama Adhi

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Sistem transportasi darat berbasis jalan di Jakarta memberikan kontribusi tertinggi dalam inventarisasi emisi CO2 DKI Jakarta sebesar 45% dengan jumlah 19,61 juta ton CO2 pada tahun 2005. Meskipun ada beberapa strategi pada berbagai peraturan, kebijakan, dan kegiatan yang mengarah pada pengurangan emisi CO2, tata kelola hal-hal tersebut terpecah dalam hal mendefinisikan metode yang dapat diandalkan dalam mengukur emisi CO2 dari sektor transportasi berbasis jalan darat. Pendekatan top-down yang digunakan pada tahun 2005 tampaknya tidak valid untuk digunakan pada masa mendatang. Sementara itu, menggunakan metode yang sama pada tahun 2015, emisi CO2 meningkat 270% dan mencapai hampir 50 juta ton CO2. Karena data jarak tempuh kendaraan (VKT) tidak memadai, tesis ini memperkirakan emisi CO2 dari 379 km jalan di Jakarta, yang terdiri dari 139 km jalan tol dan 240 km jalur BRT, menghasilkan sebanyak 15,21 juta ton CO2 pada tahun 2015. Perhitungan ini hanya mencakup 6% dari total jalan di Jakarta. Meskipun, hal ini hanya bagian integral dari seluruh perhitungan emisi CO2 dari transportasi darat, jumlah ini mencapai 30% dari hasil top-down. Penulis juga melakukan studi banding dengan Beijing dan New Delhi. Indonesia tertinggal di belakang Cina dan India dalam menerapkan standar emisi kendaraan. Dalam mengembangkan metode yang tepat pada perhitungan emisi CO2 sektor transportasi berbasis jalan darat; data yang memadai harus sering direkap. Beijing dan New Delhi berada di garis terdepan dalam hal data VKT, sementara Jakarta masih dianggap menggunakan data konsumsi bahan bakar (pendekatan top-down).

Kata Kunci: transportasi darat, emisi CO2, konsumsi bahan bakar, jarak tempuh kendaraan (VKT)

ABSTRACT

The road-based transportation system in Jakarta contributed the highest rank on the inventory of city's CO2 emission as much as 45% with the amount of 19.61 million ton CO2 in 2005. Although there were some ample strategies on the various regulations, policies, and projects that led to a reduction of CO2 emission, the governance of those plans are scattered in term of defining the reliable method on measuring traffic-related CO2 emission. The top-down approach that utilise in 2005 seemed not valid to be used in the future. Meanwhile, using the same method in 2015, the traffic-related CO2 emission increased 270% and reached almost 50 million tons CO2. Due to the inadequate vehicle kilometer travelled (VKT) data, this thesis estimates the CO2 emission from 379 km roads in Jakarta, consisting of 139 km of highway and 240 km of BRT lanes, resulted as much as 15.21 million tons CO2 in 2015. This calculation only covers 6% of the total road in Jakarta. Although, it is only an integral part of the whole CO2 emission inventory form road-based transportation, this number reaches 30% from the top-down result. The author also did the comparative study with Beijing and New Delhi. Indonesia is lagging behind China and India in implementing the vehicle emission standards. In develop precise method on traffic-related CO2 emission; the adequate data should be recorded frequently. Beijing and New Delhi are in the forefront in term of VKT data, while Jakarta still deemed to utilise the gasoline consumption data (top-down approach).

Keywords: road-based transportation system, CO2 emission, gasoline consumption, vehicle kilometer travelled (VKT)  

 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v19i2.2840

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