Kajian Level dan Dampak Senyawa Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) pada Ikan Kerapu Budidaya dan Kerapu Liar dari Lampung

Agus Sudaryanto

Abstract


ABSTRACT

 

In regard to food security and safety, the need for evaluation of the risks and benefits of fishery products due to environmental contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has become a matter of concern. In this study, PBDEs were determined in farmed and wild groupers obtained from a mariculture area in Lampung to understand the contamination status and its differences between farmed and wild groupers, and to evaluate the proportion of their congeners as well as risks and benefits of consuming contaminated fish. Fourteens PBDE congeners from mono- to deca BDE were analyzed from samples stored in es-Bank using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS). PBDEs were detected in all the samples of the present study, with the levels being significantly higher (p<0.01) in farmed (1.1–6.2 ng/g lipid wt) than in wild groupers (0.20–1.1 ng/g lipid wt). Analysis of fish feeds indicated that the higher level of contaminants in farmed groupers most likely came from the commercial fish feed which they consumed. The study confirms relatively high concentrations of these compounds in farmed than wild fish. However, the levels still bellow to those farmed fish reported worldwide but have similar composition pattern of congeners being BDE-47 as predominant congener. The evaluation of PBDEs concentration in groupers showed that the levels were still bellow than fish tissue guideline. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake of PBDEs was also far bellow the reference dose values (RfDs) and/or Minimum Risk Levels (MRL), indicating minimum risk caused by these pollutants to groupers as well as to Indonesian from consuming fish.

 

Keywords: contamination, PBDEs, farmed grouper, wild grouper, health risk.

 

ABSTRAK

 

Berkaitan dengan isu ketahanan dan keamanan pangan, evaluasi terhadap resiko dan manfaat dari produk perikanan terhadap pencemaran lingkungan dari polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  telah menjadi perhatian.  Pada penelitian ini, PBDEs dideterminasi pada ikan kerapu budidaya dan kerapu liar dari daerah Lampung untuk mengetahui status kontaminasi dan perbedaan diantara dua kelompok kerapu, mengevaluasi proporsi konjener penyusun serta risiko dan manfaat dari mengkonsumsi ikan yang terkontaminasi. Empat belas konjener PBDEs dari mono- sampai ke deka BDE dianalisis dari sampel yang tersimpan di es-BANK menggunakan kromatografi gas yang dilengkapi dengan detektor spektrometri massa (GC-MS). PBDEs terdeteksi di semua sampel kerapu, dengan konsentrasi secara signifikan lebih tinggi (p<0,01) pada kerapu budidaya (1,16,2 ng / g lipid wt) daripada di kerapu liar (0,201,1 ng / g lipid wt). Analisis pakan ikan menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kontaminan yang lebih tinggi di kelompok kerapu budidaya ini kemungkinan berasal dari pakan ikan komersial yang mereka konsumsi. Studi ini menegaskan bahwa ikan budidaya mempunyai konsentrasi PBDEs yang lebih tinggi daripada ikan liar. Namun demikian, kadar konsentrasi PBDEs pada kerapu budidaya ini masih lebih rendah daripada yang dilaporkan pada beberapa ikan budidaya di seluruh dunia, tetapi memiliki pola komposisi konjener yang sama dimana BDE-47 merupakan konjener yang dominan. Evaluasi konsentrasi PBDEs pada kerapu memperlihatkan bahwa kadarnya masih di bawah standar rujukan untuk konsentrasi pada jaringan ikan. Selanjutnya, perkiraan asupan harian PBDEs juga masih jauh di bawah nilai rujukan dosis referensi (RfDs) dan/atau Tingkat Risiko Minimum (MRL), menunjukkan potensi dampak yang rendah pada jaringan ikan itu sendiri maupun kesehatan orang Indonesia karena mengkonsumsi kerapu.

 

Kata kunci: kontaminasi, PBDEs, kerapu budidaya, kerapu liar, resiko kesehatan


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v20i1.3120

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