Pengolahan Nitrifikasi Limbah Amonia dan Denitrifikasi Limbah Fosfat dengan Biofilter Tercelup

Arysca Wisnu Satria, Merza Rahmawati, Agus Prasetya

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Water pollution is a problem that often arises and gives a serious impact to the environment. Therefore, it should be reduced by conventional methods or modern methods. The submerged biofilter is a biological waste treatment plant that utilizing microorganisms grown in a packing medium. The advantages of submerged biofilter as a waste treatment plant are easy to use and low energy consumption so the operational cost is cheaper. This study aims to determine the operational parameters of the submerged biofilter and to develop a model that can be used to estimate the rate of elimination of each pollutant using nitrification reactor for ammonia and denitrification reactor for phosphate. The experiments were conducted with draining the wastewater in a cylindrical bio-filter column in which the hight is 90 cm. At first, the microorganism was grown for two weeks with the residence time of one day. Furthermore, the wastewater removals are conducted with hydraulic loading rate (HLR) variation of 0.44; 0.55; 0.74; 1.11; 1.66; 2.21; and 3.32 m3/m2/day. Then the effluent from the outlet is analyzed using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results showed that the optimum ammonia and phosphate removal was obtained in 0.44 m3/m2/day for ammonia removal and 1.66 m3/m2/day for phosphate removal. While the removal of ammonia and phosphate percentage from both conditions are 97.41% and 27.16% respectively. The changes of HLR will give an effect on substrate reduction rate (SRR), and the percentage of substrate removal. The model developed based on efficiency factors presented a good approach to represent the concentration of substrate effluent at various HLR.

Keywords: wasteswater, nitrification, denitrification, submerged biofilter

ABSTRAK

Pencemaran air merupakan permasalahan yang sering muncul dan berpengaruh serius pada lingkungan. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan usaha yang berkelanjutan untuk dapat mengurangi dampak dari pencemaran tersebut, baik dengan cara-cara konvensional maupun inovasi teknologi terbaru. Biofilter tercelup (submerged biofilter) adalah suatu alat pengolah limbah secara biologi dengan memanfaatkan mikroorganisme yang ditumbuhkan dalam media packing di dalamnya. Kelebihan penggunaan biofilter tercelup sebagai alat pengolah air limbah adalah pengelolaannya yang mudah dan konsumsi energi yang rendah sehingga biaya operasionalnya murah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui parameter operasional biofilter tercelup dan mengembangkan model untuk memperkirakan laju penyisihan setiap polutan menggunakan reaktor nitrifikasi untuk limbah amonia dan reaktor denitrifikasi untuk fosfat. Percobaan dilakukan dengan mengalirkan limbah pada sebuah kolom biofilter berbentuk silinder dengan ketinggian 90 cm. Pada mulanya mikroorganisme ditumbuhkan dengan mengalirkan limbah selama dua minggu dengan waktu tinggal cairan satu hari. Selanjutnya dilakukan penyisihan limbah dengan variasi kecepatan beban hidrolik (HLR) sebesar 0,44; 0,55; 0,74; 1,11; 1,66; 2,21; dan 3,32 m3/m2/hari. Effluent dari keluaran reaktor kemudian dianalisis menggunakan Spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi optimum penyisihan amonia dan fosfat adalah 0,44 m3/m2/hari untuk penyisihan amonia dan 1,66 m3/m2/hari untuk penyisihan fosfat. Persentase removal amonia dan fosfat dari kedua kondisi tersebut berturut-turut sebesar 97,41% dan 27,16%. Perubahan HLR berpengaruh terhadap kecepatan penyisihan limbah (SRR), dan persentase limbah tersisihkan. Model yang dikembangkan berdasarkan faktor efisiensi memberikan hasil yang cukup baik untuk merepresentasikan besarnya konsentrasi effluent limbah pada berbagai variasi HLR

Kata kunci: limbah cair, nitrikasi, denitrifikasi, biofilter tercelup 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29122/jtl.v20i2.3479

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