Anoda Pb dan Gel Elektrolit Untuk Propulsi Kapal Selam


  • Hens Saputra BPPT
  • Mochamad Rosjidi BPPT
  • Abdul Ghofar BPPT
  • Murbantan Tandirerung BPPT
  • Mochammad Ismail BPPT
  • Dorit Bayu Islam Nurwantoro BPPT



Battery is the most important component in the sub marine energy system. Up to now, majority of the sub marine are still using lead acid battery as the power source or propulsion, due to more safe in application as very high capacity of single cell (i.e. 10.000 – 15.000 Ah). The drawbacks of aqueous based battery, which utilize liquid electrolyte, are because of having produced the hydrogen gas during charging process, in which it caused the electrolyte solution to become  dry and reduced the performance of battery. In addition that the hydrogen gas generated in the sub marine was dangerous. Therefore, the aim of  this research is how to reduce or eliminate of those drawbacks by modifying kind of the liquid electrolyte by using gel electrolyte. The gel electrolyte was synthesized to reduce the evaporation of electrolyte and to avoid the leaking when submarine maneuver.  The gel electrolyte  was made by using inorganic nanoporous MCM-41. It was synthesized by hydrothermal method, using Tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) as silica sources, Cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as organic template and H2SO4 as catalyst. The MCM-41 lead acid battery gave a result of  OCV ca. 2,1 V.


Mark McGuinness and Basil Benjamin, Submarine Lead-Acid Battery Performance, Australian Submarine Corp., 2003

D. Linden, Handbook of Batteries, 3rd edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 2001

Justin Deveau, Chris White and Lukas G. Swan, Lead-acid battery response to various formation levels for off-grid solar and conventional applications, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol 11, September 2015m 1-10

C.T. Kresge, M.E. Leonowicz, W.J. Roth, J.C. Vartuli and J.S. Beck, Nature, 359 (1992) 710.

Hens, S., R. Othman, A.G.E. Sutjipto and R. Muhida, MCM-41 as a new separator material for electrochemical cell: Application in zinc–air system, J. Mem. Sci., 367, 2011 152-157

Fei Qi, Wei Chu and Bingbing Xu, Catalytic degradation of caffeine in aqueous solutions by cobalt-MCM-41 activation of peroxymonosulfate, Applied Catalysis B. Environmental, Volumes 134-135, 2013, 324-332

Claudia Vernal, Monica Mesa, Maguy Jaber, Jean Louis Guth, Ligia Sierra, Contribution to the understanding of the formation mechanism of bimodal mesoporous MCM-41 type silica with large defect, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, volume 153, 2012, 217-226

Yongping Luo, Chuan Dong, Xiaogang Li and Yang Tian, A photoelectrochemical sensor for lead ion through electrodeposition of PbS nanoparticles onto TiO2 nanotubes, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, V. 759 Part 1, 2015, 51-54

Nahid Mashkouri Najafi, Mohammad Eidizadeh, Shahram Seidi, Ensieh Ghasemi and Reza Alzadeh, Developing electrodeposistion techniques for preconcentration of ultra-traces of Ni, Cr and Pb prior to arc-atomic emission, Microchemical Journal Vol 93, Issue 2, 2009, 159-163

Leying Wang, Hao Zhang, Gaoping Cao, Wenfeng Zhang, H. Zhao and Y. Yang, Effect of activated carbon surface functional groups on nano-lead electrodeposition and hydrogen evolution and its application in lead-carbon batteries, Electrochimica Acta, V. 186, 2015, 262-271

Binghao Wang, Tao Zhu, Lizhen Huang, Teck Lip Dexter Tam, Zequn Cui, Jinggiang Ding and Lifeng Chi Addressable growth of oriented organic semiconductor ultra-thin films on hydrophobic surface by direct dip-coating, Organic Electronics, V. 24, 2015, 170-175

Zheling Zhang and Zhenghong Yang, Theoretical and practical discussion of measurement accuracy for physisorption with micro- and mesoporous materials, Chinese Journal of Catalysis, V.34 Issue 10, 2013, 1797-1810


Additional Files