Main Article Content

Dudi Hardianto


Review on Rapid Diagnosis Method and Treatment of Salmonella typhi Infection



Salmonella is a genus of gram-negative bacilli which are pathogenic for human. Recently over 2,500 serotypes of Salmonella have been reported. Of these, the most common serotype causing typhoid fever which is acute infectious disease in small intestine due to S. typhi entering the body through contaminated food or drink. S. typhi infection remains a major public health concern worldwide because of the subsequent economic burden for the cost of surveillance, prevention, and treatment. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is an endemic disease that threatens public health and becomes a complex problem because it increases career cases and drug resistance, so its diagnosis is needed. Although there is already a diagnosis method of typhoid fever conventionally, a fast, easy and reliable diagnosis method is needed to diagnose typhoid fever by medical personnel in endemic countries. Typhoid fever is treated by antibiotics and prevention efforts are carried out through vaccination.

Keywords: antibiotics, pathogen, rapid detection, Salmonella typhi, typhoid fever



Salmonella adalah bakteri basil gram negatif yang bersifat patogen terhadap manusia dan saat ini telah dilaporkan lebih dari 2.500 serotipe. Salah satu serotype Salmonella diketahui menyebabkan penyakit demam tifoid yaitu infeksi akut pada usus halus akibat S. typhi yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui makanan dan minuman yang tercemar. Infeksi S. typhi menjadi masalah utama dalam kesehatan masyarakat di seluruh dunia karena bebani ekonomi yang ditimbulkannya untuk biaya pengawasan, pencegahan, dan pengobatan. Di Indonesia, demam tifoid merupakan penyakit endemis yang mengancam kesehatan masyarakat dan menjadi masalah kompleks karena demam tifoid meningkatkan kasus-kasus karier dan resistensi obat sehingga diperlukan diagnosisnya. Meskipun sudah ada diagnosis demam tifoid secara konvensional, tetapi diperlukan metode diagnosis yang cepat, mudah dan andal untuk mendeteksi demam tifoid oleh tenaga medis yang bekerja di negara-negara endemik. Demam tifoid diobati dengan pemberian antibiotika dan dilakukan upaya pencegahan melalui vaksinasi.

Kata Kunci: antibiotika, demam tifoid, deteksi cepat, patogen, Salmonella typhi

Article Details

How to Cite
Hardianto, D. (2019). TELAAH METODE DIAGNOSIS CEPAT DAN PENGOBATAN INFEKSI <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. Jurnal Bioteknologi &Amp; Biosains Indonesia (JBBI), 6(1), 149–158.
Review Article
Author Biography

Dudi Hardianto, Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT). Pusat Teknologi Farmasi dan Medika, BPPT Gedung LAPTIAB 610-612 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong Tangerang

Academic Profile:

JBBI Reviewer: Hardianto

Research Gate: Hardianto

IPI Portal Garuda: Hardianto


Ajibola O, Mshelia MB, Gulumbe BH, Eze AA (2018) Thypoid fever diagnosis in endemic countries: A clog in the wheel of progress? Medicina (Kaunas) 54:23. doi: 10.3390/medicina54020023

Alba S, Bakker MI, Hatta M, Pauline F, Scheelbeek PFD, Dwiyanti R, Usman R, Sultan AR, Sabir M, Tandirogang N, Amir M, Yasir Y, Pastoor R, van Beers S, Smits HL (2016) Risk factors of typhoid infection in the Indonesian archipelago. PLoS One 11:e0155286. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155286

Amicizia D, Arata L, Zangrillo F, Panatto D, Gasparini R (2017) Overview of the impact of typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Utility of Ty21a vaccine (Vivotif). J Prev Med Hyg 58:E1-E8. PMC5432773

Andrew JR, Ryan ET (2015) Diagnostics for invasive Salmonella infections: Current challenges and future directions. Vaccine Suppl 33:C8-C15. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.030.

Bell RL, Jarvis KG, Ottesen AR, McFarland MA, Brown EW (2016) Recent and emerging innovations in Salmonella detection: a food and environmental perspective. Microb Biotechnol 9:279-292. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12359

Chowdhury MAJ, Shumy F, Anam AM, Chowdhury MK (2014) Current status of typhoid fever: A review. Bangladesh Med J 43:106-111. doi: 10.3329/bmj.v43i2.21394

Christenson JC (2013) Salmonella infection. Pediatr Rev 34:375-383. doi: 10.1542/pir.34-9-375

Coburn B, Grassl GA, Finlay BB (2007) Salmonella, the host and disease: A brief review. Immunol Cell Biol 85:112-118. doi: 10.1038/sj.icb.7100007

Crump JA, Sjolund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM (2015) Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 28:901-937. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00002-15

Eng S, P Pusparajah P, Mutalib NA, Ser H, Chan K, Lee L (2015) Salmonella: A review on pathogenesis, epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Front Life Sci 8:284-293. doi: 10.1080/21553769.2015.1051243

Ezeigbo OR, Agomoh N, Asuoha-Chuks N (2015) Laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever using widal and blood culture methods in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria. Am J Microbiol Res 3:181-183. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-3-6-1

Fan F, Yan M, Du P, Chen C, Kan B (2015) Rapid and sensitive Salmonella typhi detection in blood and fecal samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Foodborne Pathog Dis 12:778-786. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2015.1950

Goay YX, Chin KL, Tan CLL, Yeoh CY, Ja’afar JN, Zaidah AR, Chinni SV, Phua KK (2016) Identification of five novel Salmonella typhi-specific genes as marker for diagnosis of typhoid fever using single-gene target PCR assays. Biomed Res Int 2016:1-9. doi: 10.1155/2016/8905675

Gunn JS, Marshall JM, Baker S, Dongol S, Charles RC, Ryan ET (2014) Salmonella chronic carriage: epidemiology, diagnosis, and gallbladder persistence. Trends Microbiol 22:648-655. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2014.06.007

Hayat AS, Shah SIA, Shaikh N (2011) Typhoid fever: Evaluation of typhidot (IgM) in early and rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. Professional Med J 18:259-264

Huang DB, DuPont HL (2005) Problem pathogens: extra-intestinal complication of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. Lancet Infect Dis 5:341-348. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70138-9

Johnson R, Mylona E, Frankel G (2018) Typhoidal Salmonella: Distinctive virulence factors and pathogenesis. Cell Microbiol 20:e12939 doi: 10.1111/cmi.12939

Kaur A, Kapil A, Elangovan R, Jha S, Kalyanasundaram D (2018) Highly-sensitive detection of Salmonella typhi in clinical blood samples by magnetic nanoparticle-based enrichment and in-situ measurement of isothermal amplification of nucleic acid. PLoS One 13:e0194817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194817

Keddy KH, Sooka A, Letsoalo ME, Hoyland G, Chaignat CL, Morrissey AB, Crump JA (2011) Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites. Bull World Health Organization 89:640-647. doi: 10.2471/BLT.11.087627

Kuijpers LMF, Chung P, Peeters, M Phoba P, Kham C, Barbe B, Lunguya O, Jacobs J (2018) Diagnostic accuracy of antigen-based immunochromato-graphic rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Salmonella in blood culture broth. PLoS One 13:e0194024. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194024

Lamas A, Miranda JM, Regal P, Vasquez B, Franco CM, Cepeda A (2018) A comprehensive review of non-enterica subspecies of Salmonella enterica. Microbiol Res 206:60-73. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.09.010

Lee K, Runyon M, Herrman TJ, Phillips R, Hsieh J (2015) Review of Salmonella detection and identification methods: Aspects of rapid emergency response and food safety. Food Cont 47:264-276. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.07.011

Li P, Liu Q, Luo H, Liang K, Han Y, Roland KL, Curtis R, Kong Q (2018) Bi-valent polysaccharides of Vi capsular and O9 O-antigen in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium induce strong immune responses against these two antigens. Vaccines 3:1. doi: 10.1038/s41541-017-0041-5

Mangarengi Y, Dwiyanti R, Tandirogang N, Sabir M, Natzir R, Hatta M, Yadi (2015) Evaluation of dri-dot OMPs Salmonella typhi in suspected typhoid fever patients as an immunodiagnostic kit. Am J Biomed Life Sci 3:87-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20150304.14

Mengist HM, Tilahun K (2017) Diagnostic value of widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever: A systematic review. J Med Microb Diagn 6:248. doi: 10.4172/2161-0703.1000248

Mogasale V, Maskery B, Ochiai RL, Lee JS, Mogasale VV, Ramani E, Kim YE, Park JK, Wierzba TF (2014) Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: A systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment. Lancet Glob Health 2:e570-580. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70301-8

Park SH, Aydin M, Khatiwara A, Dolan MC, Gilmore DF, Bouldin JL, Ahn S, Ricke SC (2014) Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. Food Microbiol 38:250-262. doi: 10.1016/

Parry CM, Wijedoru L, Arjyal A, Baker S (2011) The utility of diagnostic tests for enteric fever in endemic locations. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9:711-725. doi: 10.1586/eri.11.47

Paul UT, Bandyopadhyay A (2017) Typhoid fever: A review. Int J Adv Med 4:300-306. doi: 10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20171035

Purba IE, Wandra T, Nugrahini N, Nawawi S, Kandun N (2016) Program pengendalian demam tifoid di Indonesia: Tantangan dan peluang. Media Litbangkes 26:99-108. doi: 10.22435/mpk.v26i2.5447.99-108

Raffatellu M, Wilson RP, Winter SE, Baumler AJ (2008) Clinical pathogenesis of typhoid fever. J Infect Dev Ctries 2:260-266. doi: 10.3855/jidc.219

Sharma T, Bhatnagar S, Tiwari A (2018) Typhoid diagnostics: looking beneath the surface. J Clinical Diagnostic Res 12:KE01-KE07. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2018/36358.12048

Siba V, Horwood PF, Vannuga K, Wapling JA, Sehuko R, Siba PM, Greenhill AR (2012) Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea using a composite reference standard. Clinical Vaccine Immunol 19:1833-1837. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00380-12

Stanaway JD, Reiner RC, Blacker BF, Goldberg EM, Khalil IA, Troeger CE, Andrews JR, Bhutta ZA, Crump JA, Im J, Marks F (2019) The global burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet Infect Dis 19:369-381. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30685-6

Storey HL, Huang Y, Crudder C, Golden A, de los Santos T, Hawkins K (2015) A meta-analysis of typhoid diagnostic accuracy studies: A recommendation to adopt a standardized composite reference. PLoS One 10:e0142364. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142364

Sultana S, Maruf MAA, Sultana R, Jahan S (2016) Laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever: A review update. Bangladesh J Infect Dis 3:43-51. doi: 10.3329/bjid.v3i2.33834

Tam FCH, Ling TKW, Wong KT, Leung DTM, Chan RCY, Lim PL (2008) The TUBEX test detects not only typhoid-specific antibodies but also soluble antigens and whole bacteria. J Med Microbiol 57:316-323. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.47365-0

Veeraraghavan B, Pragasam AK, Bakthavatchalam YD, Ralph R (2018) Typhoid fever: Issues in laboratory detection, treatment options and concerns in management in developing countries. Future Sci OA 4:FSO312. doi: 10.4155/fsoa-2018-0003

WHO (2003) Background Document: The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Vaccines and Biological, World Health Organization

Yasin N, Jabeen A, Nisa I, Tasleem U, Khan H, Momin F, Shah F, Rasheed U, Zeb U, Safi A, Hussain M, Qasim M, Rahman H (2018) A review: Typhoid fever. J Bacteriol Infec Dis 2:1-7

Zaki SA, Karande S (2011) Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever: A review. J Infect Dev Ctries 5:324-337. doi: 10.3855/jidc.1405

Zhao X, Lin C, Wang J, Oh DH (2014) Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens. J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:297-312. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1310.10013


Most read articles by the same author(s)