REVIEW: PERAN NANOPARTIKEL DALAM MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN PARASIT Plasmodium PENYEBAB MALARIA

Main Article Content

Diah Anggraini Wulandari
Muhammad Safaat

Abstract

Review: The Role of Nanoparticles in Inhibiting the Growth of the Plasmodium Parasite Causing Malarial Disease


Malaria is a health problem in Indonesia with the most cases in eastern parts of Indonesia. This study provides an overview of the potential of nanoparticles in inhibiting malaria vectors and the growth of Plasmodium parasites that causes malaria based on the latest literature as reference materials and future research ideas. Nanoparticle can be synthesized using three methods i.e. physical, chemical and biological synthesis. The use of nanoparticles with biological method is highly recommended because they are practicable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic, and easy to reproduce compared to physico-chemically synthesized nanoparticles. Nanoparticles synthesized from several plants can inhibit the growth of Plasmodium parasites with IC50 3–78 g mL–1. This activity is classified as high to moderate in inhibiting the growth of the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. The mechanism of inhibition of Plasmodium growth is by increasing the pH of food vacuole due to the reaction of nanoparticles with Ferriprotoporphyrin IX. The high pH in the food vacuole will interfere with metabolic activity by inhibiting the activity of aspartate and cysteine ??protease enzymes so that the parasites will die.


Malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan yang dihadapi Indonesia khususnya di beberapa wilayah timur Indonesia. Kajian ini memberikan gambaran potensi nanopartikel dalam menghambat vektor malaria maupun pertumbuhan parasit Plasmodium penyebab malaria berdasarkan literatur terbaru sebagai bahan acuan maupun ide-ide penelitian di masa mendatang. Nanopartikel dapat disintesis menggunakan tiga metode yaitu fisika, kimia dan biologi. Penggunaan nanopartikel dengan metode biologi sangat direkomendasikan karena lebih mudah diterapkan, ramah lingkungan, bersifat non-toksik, dan mudah diperbanyak dibandingkan dengan nanopartikel yang disintensis dari fisiko-kimia. Nanopartikel yang disintesis dari beberapa tanaman dapat menghambat pertumbuhan parasit Plasmodium dengan IC50 3–78 g mL–1. Aktivitas ini tergolong tinggi hingga sedang dalam menghambat pertumbuhan parasit Plasmodium penyebab malaria. Mekanisme penghambatan pertumbuhan Plasmodium dengan cara meningkatkan pH vakuola makanan akibat reaksi nanopartikel dengan feriprotoporpirin IX. Tingginya pH pada vakuola makanan akan mengganggu aktivitas metabolisme dengan cara menghambat aktivitas enzim aspartat dan sistein protease sehingga parasit akan mati.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wulandari, D. A., & Safaat, M. . (2021). REVIEW: PERAN NANOPARTIKEL DALAM MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN PARASIT Plasmodium PENYEBAB MALARIA. Jurnal Bioteknologi &Amp; Biosains Indonesia (JBBI), 8(1), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.29122/jbbi.v8i1.4503
Section
Review Article

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