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Swastika Praharyawan


Microalgae have been widely known possessing excellent characteristics to be used as biodiesel feedstock on the commercial-scale production level. However, microalgal biodiesel is still not economically feasible to be mass-scale produced due to its high price compared to the fossil-based diesel. Therefore, many efforts have to be conducted in order to increase its feasibility. One of accurate ways to solve its constraint is maximizing the production of microalgal biomass which will increase its lipid and biodiesel productivity. The optimization of microalgal biomass production process could be conducted against the four main cultivation parameters, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) supplementation, growth medium composition, cultivation environmental condition, and growth factors/hormones addition. The operational of microalgal cultivation by applying the optimum value will maximize its biomass production which will eventually increase its biodiesel productivity. This review specifically discusses the aforementioned parameters, including its essential role and the way on how to optimize those parameters in gaining maximum microalgal biomass production.

Mikroalga diketahui memiliki karakteristik unggul sebagai bahan baku potensial dalam produksi biodiesel skala komersial. Namun, hal itu masih terbentur oleh tingginya harga produksi bila dibandingkan dengan bahan bakar diesel berbasis fosil. Oleh karena itu, berbagai upaya untuk meningkatkan kelayakan ekonominya harus dilakukan. Salah satu langkah jitu dalam memecahkan permasalahan tersebut adalah memaksimalkan produksi biomassa mikroalga, sehingga produktivitas lipid dan produktivitas biodiesel dapat meningkat. Optimasi produksi biomassa mikroalga dilakukan terhadap empat parameter utama kultivasi, seperti suplementasi karbon dioksida (CO2), komposisi media pertumbuhan, optimasi kondisi lingkungan dan penambahan faktor/hormon pertumbuhan. Operasional kultivasi mikroalga pada kondisi optimal akan memaksimalkan produksi biomassanya hingga akhirnya dapat mencapai produktivitas biodiesel yang maksimal. Artikel tinjauan ini secara khusus membahas keempat parameter tersebut di atas, termasuk perannya dalam kultivasi mikroalga serta bagaimana mengoptimalkannya agar dapat menghasilkan biomassa yang maksimal.

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