Optimization of the Vulcanization Formula of Pneumatic Rubber Fender (PRF) to Increase Resistance to the Aging Process

Main Article Content

Mahendra Anggaravidya
Sudirman Habibie
Ade Sholeh Hidayat
Hanif Yuliani
Akhmad Amry


One rubber products, pneumatic rubber fender (PRF), is fully imported, where the raw material is made primarily by synthetic rubber. PRF products have been used in the transport sector as the impact protection of ports and ships. In this study, the mixture between natural and synthetic rubber conducted to determine the  optimum formula of  mixing rubber for  the product PRF. Then the PRF-product was subjected to Aging Resistance Test (ART). Physical and mechanical properties of the PRF were analyzed by tensile strength test, elongation at break test, tear resistance test, hardness test, and also some samples of the product of mixing were observed by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The formula used in this study is the ratio of single-NR-100%; combinations of NR-70% and CR-30%; combinations of NR-30% and CR-70%; and the CR-100%. The results showed that the optimum mix formula for the PRF product is NR-70%: CR-30%.

Article Details



……….., Kemenperin, 2014

……….., http://www.indonesia-investments.com/id/bisnis/ komoditas/karet/item185

M. Dos Santos, PAZ. Suarez and J. C. Rubim, Polym Degrad Stab 90 (2005) 34.

R. L. Warley and J. Halladay, Polym Test 24 (2005) 678.

M. Dragana,and S. Miodrag, NauÄnotehniÄki PREGLED 5 (2001) 70.

C. Nah, B. Jo, and S. Kaang, J Appl Polym Sci 68 (1998) 1537.

L. Barker, J Nat Rubber Res 2 (1987) 201.

G. M. Bristow and C. Metherell, Rubber Ind 7 (1973) 252.

A. K. Mallik and R. D. Shah,Indian Rubber Manufactures’ Research Association, Thana (1983), 31-43.

H. T. Chiu, P. Tsai, J Mater Eng Perform 15 (2006) 88.

S. S. Choi, D. H. Han, S. Ko and S. Lee, Bull Korean Chem Soc 26 (2005) 1853.

Das A., Ghosh A. K., Basu D. K.: Evaluation of physical and electrical properties of chloroprene rubber and natural rubber blends. Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, 58, 230–238 (2005).

Ramesan M. T., Alex R., Khanh N. V.: Studies on the cure and mechanical properties of blends of natural rubber with dichlorocarbene modified styrene-butadiene rubber and chloroprene rubber. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 62, 41–50 (2005).

Hofmann W.: Rubber technology handbook. Hanser Publishers, Munich (1989).

Tinker A. J., Jones K. P.: Blends of natural rubber: Novel techniques for blending with speciality polymers. Chapman & Hall Ltd., London (1998).

Choi S.: Improvement of properties of silica-filled natural rubber compounds using polychloroprene. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 83, 2609–2616 (2002).

Das A.,Debnath S. C., De D., Basu D. K.: Evaluation of physical properties and curing characteristics of silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer in the presence of chloroprene rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 93, 196–200 (2004).

Sae-oui P., Sirisinha C., Thepsuwan U., Hatthapanit K.: Dependence of mechanical and aging properties of chloroprene rubber on silica and ethylene thiourea loadings, European Polymer Journal, 43, 185-193, 2007

………., Yokohama Pneumatic Fender

ISO17357: 2002, the "standard high-pressure floating pneumatic rubber fenders", which was published in 2002, then in 2014 has been revised with ISO 17357-1: 2014 to strengthen standards on the design, material and certification of floating fender pneumatic.

S. S. Choi and S. Ha: Woo CS, Bull Korean Chem Soc 27, No. 3 (2006) 429.

D. W. Brazier and G. Nickel, Rubber Chem Technol 48 (1975) 661.

A. A. Basfar, M. Abdel-Aziz and S. Mofti, Radiat Phys Chem 63 (2002) 81.

Y. Aoshuang, G. Zhengtao, Li. Li, Z. Ying and Z. Peng, Radiat Phys Chem 63 (2002) 497.

S. Taghvaei-Ganjali, F. Motiee and F. Fotoohi, Rubber Chem Technol 81 (2008) 297.

F. Padella, F. Cavalieri, G. D’Uva, A. La Barbera and F. Cataldo: Polym. Recycl., 2001, 6, 11.

J. T. Varkey, S. Augustine and S. Thomas, Polym Plast Technol Eng 39 (2000) 415.

I. A. Amraee, A. A. Katbab and S. H. Aghafarajollah,Rubber Chem Technol 69 (1995) 130.

N. Schwartz and D. W. Brazier, J Appl Polym Sci 22 (1978) 113.

K. Pal, T. Das, S. K. Pal and C. K. Das: Polym. Eng. Sci., 2008, 48, (12), 2410–2417.