EVALUASI PERFORMA INDEKS MONSUN AUSMI DAN WNPMI DI WILAYAH INDONESIA

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Adi Mulsandi
Ardhasena Sopaheluwakan
Akhmad Faqih
Rahmat Hidayat
Yonny Koesmaryono

Abstract

Intisari


Iklim di wilayah Indonesia sangat dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas monsun Asia-Australia. Variabilitas kedua sistem monsun tersebut dapat direpresentasikan dengan baik masing-masing oleh indeks monsun Australian Summer Monsoon Index (AUSMI) dan Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI). Saat ini, BMKG secara operasional menggunakan indeks AUSMI dan WNPMI untuk memonitor aktivitas monsun di wilayah Indonesia sebagai bahan prakiraan musim. Meskipun banyak literatur menyatakan bahwa wilayah Indonesia merupakan bagian dari sistem monsun Asia-Australia, namun kondisi topografi lokal yang kompleks berpotensi memodifikasi sirkulasi monsun sehingga perlu dikaji performa kedua indeks tersebut sebelum digunakan secara operasional. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji performa indeks monsun AUSMI dan WNPMI dalam menggambarkan variasi antartahunan (interannual), variasi dalam musim (intraseasonal), dan siklus tahunan (annual cycle) hujan monsun Indonesia. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa kedua indeks memiliki performa yang sangat baik hanya di wilayah dimana indeks tersebut didefinisikan namun kurang baik untuk wilayah Indonesia seperti yang ditunjukan oleh nilai koefisien korelasi yang tidak signifikan dari hasil uji statistik antara kedua indeks dengan curah hujan dari Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) pada periode 1981-2010. Selain itu, kedua indeks juga memperlihatkan karakteristik siklus tahunan yang berbeda dengan karakteristik siklus tahunan hujan wilayah Jawa sebagai wilayah kunci monsun Indonesia. Hasil ini mengindikasikan perlunya pendefinisian indeks sendiri untuk memonitor aktivitas monsun di wilayah Indonesia.


  


Abstract 


The climate of Indonesia is strongly affected by the Asian-Australian monsoon system. The variability of the two monsoon systems can be well represented by the Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI) and the Australian Summer Monsoon Index (AUSMI) respectively. For producing seasonal forecast, BMKG uses the WNPMI and AUSMI monsoon index to monitor monsoon activity in Indonesia. Although most literature states that the Indonesian region is part of the Asian-Australian monsoon system, the complex local topography may modify the monsoon circulation. Hence, it is necessary to assess the performance of the two indices before they are operationally used. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the AUSMI and WNPMI monsoon indices in describing the annual cycle, intraseasonal and interannual variability of the Indonesian monsoon rainfall. The results revealed that the two indices only performed very well in the areas where the index was defined but lack of skill for the Indonesian region because of insignificant linear correlation based on a statistical significance test between the two indices and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) rainfall in the 1981-2010 period. In addition, both monsoon indices and Java rainfall showed different characteristics of the annual cycle. These results indicate that it is necessary to define a specific index for monitoring monsoon activity in Indonesia.

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References

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