Main Article Content
High amounts of black liquor wastewater are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. It contains an alkaline solution (NaOH), so it is quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. Black liquor has been treated by coagulation method, and it still needs additional treatment. This study aimed to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by selected white-rot fungi (WRF). Five different strains of WRF have been tested for their ability to decolorize black liquor on agar and liquid media. Out of five fungi studied, two fungi, Ceriporiopsis sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, showed the capacity to grow more than 50% on agar medium. In liquid medium, the percentage of decolorization of 15,000 ppm coagulated and diluted black liquor ranged from 70 to 89% at 30 days depending on the fungal strain. Ceriporiopsis sp. showed the better ability to decolorize black liquor than P. chrysosporium. The performance of Ceriporiopsis sp was evaluated regarding decolorization of black liquor, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and mycelial dry weight both in coagulated black liquor and original black liquor. The color of original and coagulated black liquor can be decolorized up to 90.13 and 86.85%, respectively. COD in original and coagulated black liquor was reduced up to 70.17 and 40.09%, respectively. The presence of coagulant Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) inhibited degradation of black liquor by fungus. The result demonstrated that Ceriporiopsis sp has a potential alternative to treat black liquor wastewater.Â
JTL provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
JTL by PTL-BPPT is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://ejurnal.bppt.go.id/index.php/JTL
Wiloso, E.I., Heijungs, R., Snoo G.R.d., (2012). LCA of Second Generation Bioethanol: A Review and Some Issues to be Resolved for Good LCA Practice, Renew Sust Energ Rev, 16(7): 5295-5308.
Sari, A.A., Tachibana, S., Limin, S.G., (2013). Enhancement of Ligninolytic Activity of Trametes versicolor U97 Pre-grown in Agricultural Residues to Degrade DDT in Soil, Water Air Soil Poll 224(7): 1-9.
Bugg, T.D.H., Ahmad, M., Hardiman, E.M., Singh, R., (2011). The Emerging Role for Bacteria in Lignin Degradation and Bio-product Formation, Curr Opin Chem Biol, 22: 394â€“400.
Wu, J., Xiao, Y.Zhong., Yu, H.Q., (2005). Degradation of Lignin in Pulp Mill Wastewaters by White-Rot Fungi on Biofilm. Bioresource Technol, 96: 1357â€“1363.
Sari, A. A., Kurniawan, H. H., Nurdin, M., Abimanyu, H., (2015). Decolorization of Black Liquor Wastewater Generated from Bioethanol Process by Using Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches. Energy Procedia, 68: 254-262.
Hossain, K., Ismail, N., (2015). Bioremediation and Detoxification of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent: A Review. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 9: 113-134.
Pokhrel, D., Viraraghavan, T., (2004). Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewaterâ€“â€“a Review. Sci. Total Environ, 333(1): 37â€“58.
Rodrigues, A.C., Boroski, M., Shimada, N.S., Garcia, C., Nozaki, J., Hioka, N., (2008). Treatment of Paper Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Coagulation-Flocculation Followed by Heterogeneous Photoctalysis. J Photochem Photobiol A, 194: 1-10.
Hermosilla, D., Merayo, N., Gasco, A., Blanco, A., (2015). The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 22(1): 168-191.
Sari, A.A., Tachibana, S., Muryanto, (2012). Correlation of Ligninolytic Enzymes from the Newly-Found Species Trametes versicolor U97 with RBBR Decolorization and DDT Degradation. Water Air Soil Poll, 223(9): 5781-5792.
Mehna, A., Bajpai, P., Bajpai, P.K., (1995). Studies on Decolorization of Effluent from a Small Pulp Mill Utilizing Agriresidues with Trametes versicolor. Enzyme Microb Tech, 17(1): 18-22.
Lara, M.A., Rodriguez-Malaver, A.J., Rojas, O.J., Holmquist, O., Gonzalez, A.M., Bullon, J., Penaloza, N., Araujo, E. (2003). Black Liquor Lignin Biodegradation by Trametes elegans. Int Biodeter & Biodeg, 52: 167-173.
Re, V.D., Papinutti, L., (2011). Black Liquor Decolorization by Selected White-Rot Fungi. Appl Biochem and Biotech, 165(2): 406-415.
Saratale, R.G., Saratale, G.D., Chang, J.S., Govindwar, (2009). Ecofriendly Degradation of Sulfonaed Diazo Dye C.I. Reactive Green 19A using Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168. Biores Technol, 100: 3897-3905.
APHA-AWWA-WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed. New York: American Publishing Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation; 2005.
Hossain, K., Ismail., N., (2015). Bioremediation and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent: A review. Research Journal of Environment Toxicology, 9(3): 113-134.
Tekere, M., Mswaka, A.Y., Zvauya, R., Read, J.S., (2001). Growth, dye degradation and ligninolytic activity studies on Zimbabwean white rot fungi. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 28: 420-426.
Font, X., Caminal, G., Gabarrell, X., Romero, S., Vicent, MT., (2003). Black Liquor Detoxification by Laccase of Trametes versicolor pellets. J Chem Technol and Biotechnol, 78: 548-554.
Kredics, L., Doczi, I., Antal, Z., Manczinger, L., (2001). Effect of Heavy Metals on Growth and Extracellular Enzyme Activities of Mycoparasitic Trichoderma Strains. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., 66: 249-254.
Nagarathnamma, R., Bajpai, P., Bajpai, P.K., (1999). Studies on Decolourization, Degradation and Detoxification of Chlorinated Lignin Compounds in Kraft Bleaching Effluents by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Process Biochemistry, 34: 939-948.
Ruttimann, C., Schwember, E., Salas, L., Cullen, D., Vicuiia, R., (1992). Ligninolytic Enzymes of the White-rot Basidiomycetes Phlebia brevispora and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 16: 64-76.
Irfan, M., Butt, T., Imtiaz, N., Abbas, N., Khan, R.A., Shafique, A., (2013). The Removal of COD, TSS and Colour of Black Liquor by Coagulationâ€“Flocculation Process at Optimized pH, Settling and Dosing Rate. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.08.007
Sanghi, R., Bhattacharya, B., Dixit, A., Singh, V., (2006). Ipomoea dasysperma Seed Gum: An Effective Natural Coagulant for the Decolorization of Textile Dye Solutions. Journal of Environmental Management. 81: 36â€“41.
Yang, Z., Gao, B., Yue, Q., (2010). Coagulation performance and residual aluminum speciation of Al2(SO4)3 and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) in Yellow River water treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 165: 122-132.
Ferreira, V., Goncalves, A.L., Pratas J., Canhoto, C., (2010). Contamination by Uranium Mine Drainages Affects Fungal Growth and Interactions between Fungal Species and Strains. Mycologia, 102 (5): 1004-1011.
Braha, B., Tintemann, H., Krauss, G., Ehrman, J., Barlocher, F., Krauss, G.J., (2007). Stress Response in Two Strains of the Aquatic Hyphomycete Heliscus lugdunensis after exposure to cadmium and copper ions. BioMetals, 20: 93â€“ 105.
Cameron, M.D., Timofeevski, S., Aust, S.D., (2000). Enzymology of Phanerochaete chrysosporium with Respect to the Degradation of Recalcitrant Compounds and Xenobiotics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 54: 751-758.
Bugg, T.D.H., Ahmad, M., Hardiman, E.M., Rahmanpor, R., (2011). Pathways for Degradation of Lignin in Bacteria and Fungi, Nat. Prod. Rep., 28: 1883-1896.
Cecen, F., Urban, W., Haberl, R., (1992). Biological and Advanced Treatment of Sulfate Pulp Bleaching Effluents. Water Sci. Technol. 26(1â€“2): 435â€“444.